Group Dynamics – Meaning, Features and Types of Group (2024)

Group Dynamics – Meaning, Features and Types of Group (1)

Table of Contents

1. Meaning of Group Dynamics

2. Features of Group

3. Group and Collection of People

4. Types of Groups

5. Reasons for Joining Informal Groups

6. Management of Informal Groups

7. How do Groups Influence Member Behaviour

8. Negative Aspects of Group Influence

9. Group Processes and Functions

10. Factors Affecting Group Processes and Functions

11. Group Behaviour

12. Stages in Group Development

13. Group Cohesiveness

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1. Meaning of Group Dynamics

Groups are important for organisational life. Managers spend substantial time in managing groups and teams so that groups contribute to organisational and group goals. How effectively a manager plans, organises, staffs, leads and controls depends upon how effectively he manages the groups. A group means “two or more people who interact with one another, are psychologically aware of one another, perceive themselves to be members of the group, and work towards a common goal.”

Group dynamics studies the nature, formation and reasons for forming the groups. It studies how groups affect the behaviour and attitude of members and the organisation. It is a process by which people interact with each other. If groups are effectively managed, they contribute a lot to organisational goals.

2. Features of Group

Group has the following features :

1. It consists of two or more persons who interact with each other.

2. Group members have reciprocal influence on each other. Each member influences and is influenced by others in the group.

3. People develop mutual perceptions and emotions. They perceive and recognise each other as members of the group.

4. Every group has

      • formal leader elected by group members, and
      • informal leader “who engages in leadership activities but whose right to do so has not been formally recognised by the organisation or group.”

5. Each individual performs specific role which influences expectations of group members from each other. Role structure is “the set of defined roles and inter-relationships among those roles that the group or team members define and accept.”

6. Every group has group norms. “Norm is a standard of behaviour that the group accepts and expects of its members. It represents standards of work to promote group activity.”

7. It maintains stability through group cohesiveness. Members

      • develop liking for each other,
      • develop sense of identification with each other, and
      • remain attached to each other.

8. Members work for common interests and goals.

3. Group and Collection of People

Group is a collection of people to achieve a common goal. Can a collection of people, therefore, sitting in the library or cinema hall or bus stop be called a group? No. This is mere aggregation of people. Interaction, power to influence and dependence on each other makes aggregation be called a group.

Aggregation of people is called a group when people;

    • Interact with each other.
    • Influence the behaviour of each other.
    • Are mutually dependant on each other.

People share views on the common subject, interact with one another, get influenced by others and arrive at consensus of opinion. Thus, group is an aggregation of people who interact with one another and influence interdependence of individuals. Study of groups and group behaviour is known as ‘Group Dynamics’. It is an important aspect of organising.

4. Types of Groups

Groups can be of the following types :

I. Formal and informal groups

II. Primary and secondary groups

III. Small and large groups

I. Formal and informal groups

Formal groups

Formal groups are deliberately created to carry out specific tasks. They have clearly defined authority-responsibility relationships, communication channels, rules and regulations that govern the behaviour of members. Committees, task forces and work teams are the formal groups.

Formal Groups can be :

(i) Permanent Formal Groups [Command groups and permanent committees]

(ii) Temporary Formal Groups [Task forces and project groups]

(i) Permanent formal groups are formally represented on the organisation chart. They are also known as command groups and have both managers and subordinates. functional or product departments are the command groups.

(ii) Temporary formal groups deal with specific problems. They dissolve once the problem is solved. Task groups, project groups or ad hoc committees are temporary formal groups. They are created to respond to the changing environment and include people from different command groups.

Types of Committees : Committees (formal groups) can be of the following types :

(i) Line and Staff Committees : The basis of forming line and staff committees is authority. committee which has authority to make decisions is line committee and committee which does not make decisions but only assists, advices and counsels the superiors is staff committee. It helps line managers to perform the managerial functions

(ii) Ad hoc and Standing Committee : The basis for forming ad hoc and standing committees is time frame. Committees which are formed for a specific purpose and dissolve once the purpose is achieved are ad hoc or temporary committees. For example, if company wants to conduct market survey for a new product, committee shall be formed for this purpose which shall function till the survey is completed. Once done and the product launched, the committee gets dissolved. committee which lasts for long duration is standing or permanent committee. These committees provide advisory functions to the chief executives.

(iii) Formal and Informal Committees : The basis of forming formal and informal committees is their position on the organisation chart. Committees formed according to formal procedures and assigned duties, power and authority to discharge those duties are formal committees. They are formally shown on organisation charts and are permanent committees.

Informal committees are groups of individuals which are not officially set up by the organisation. They work for a given purpose without officially defined rules or guidelines.

(iv) Plural Executive Committee and Advisory Committee : committee which carries out managerial functions (planning through controlling), makes and implements decisions is a plural executive committee. The most common example of this committee is the board of directors which takes important managerial decisions and orders for their implementation. The advisory committee does not make decisions but only performs advisory or recommendatory functions.

Informal Groups

Meaning : These groups are not created by managers but spontaneously grow out of interaction amongst members of formal groups. They are created by choice for promoting the group goals. members even subordinate individual goals to group goals. These groups may oppose or support the formal objectives. They are informal committees not shown on the organisation chart. They form out of common thinking of people. They are temporary and assist top executives on specific matters.

Types of Informal Groups : These are also called ‘overlays’. They are classified into five categories by Pfiffner and Sherwood.

(i) Social overlays : These groups form because of social needs of people, that is, need to interact.

(ii)Functional overlays : People of one department assist people of other departments. Workers of production department can go to supervisors of sales department for help. groups formed through inter-departmental interactions are called functional overlays.

(iii) Decision overlays : Some people excel in decision-making because of their ability to judge, analyse and scan the information. People often approach them from different departments for consultation. This forms decision overlays.

(iv) Power overlays : Power is different from authority. While authority is authority of position, power is the authority of individual. Managers can acquire power through experience, education, and factors like religion, politics, nationality etc. Interaction based on such factors forms power overlays.

(v) Communication overlays : People using common equipments and machines, recreational halls, canteens, club facilities etc. interact informally and form communication overlays.

Functions of Informal Groups : Major functions of informal groups are as follows:

(i) Group values and life-style : Within formal structure of organisation, informal groups arise on the basis of social values and life-styles of individuals. However, as these groups strengthen, they develop tendency to resist change.

(ii) Social satisfaction : Interaction at the work place, sharing common thoughts, sitting and eating together satisfy employees’ social needs.

(iii) Operate communication systems : Informal system of communication operates along the formal channel of communication and works even faster than the formal communication channel. Messages are transmitted at much faster speed though rumours may also spread along with formal messages.

(iv) Maintain social control : Informal groups influence behaviour of people inside and outside the group. Influencing behaviour inside the group is called internal control and of those outside the groups is called external control. A particular kind of behaviour not acceptable to group serves as internal control. External control is exercised on people outside the group such as, trade unions.

Merits of Informal Groups : These are similar to merits of informal organisation.

Limitations of Informal Groups : These are similar to limitations of informal organisation.

II. Primary and secondary groups

Primary groups promote common goals. Members share values and behaviour. These groups are small and largely affect inter-personal behaviour. Friendship and social needs are the basis of these groups.

Secondary groups have loose inter-personal relationships and no common goals to share. Their members do not actively interact with each other. Professional bodies, business organisations are the common forms of secondary groups.

III. Small and large groups

Small groups have few members who closely interact with each other. Large groups have large number of members with weak inter-personal interaction. They do not actively communicate with each other.

5. Reasons for Joining Informal Groups

People join informal groups for two reasons :

I. Internal Reasons

II. External Reasons

I. Internal Reasons

Groups satisfy needs in the following ways :

1. Interpersonal attraction : There is basic need in human beings for care, help and be useful to others. When people have similar attitudes, personality, economic status, values and beliefs, they become part of the same group. They like to enjoy interact with others. Frequent interaction is rewarding as it promotes similar values and beliefs.

2. Group activities : A person may join a group because he is attracted by group activities, like religious and charitable activities. Though group activities attract membership, interpersonal attraction is also necessary. A person may choose to forgo the activity than join a group with low interpersonal attraction.

3. Group goals : People join groups because they are motivated by group goals, for example, upliftment of the poor.

4. Group norms : Group norms have strong influence on behaviour of members. Norms are the standards accepted by the group. They are implicitly binding on group members. They are not written rules of behaviour but evolve informally. Members implicitly agree to these standards. Group norms influence behaviour a great deal and are binding on members of the group.

5. Higher pay-off : Generally, people behave according to perceived reward for the behaviour. If one type of behaviour has higher pay-off (is rewarded more), they repeat that behaviour.
Researchers have shown that when pay-off is high, people tend to collaborate more, particularly those who are interested in others. Conceptually, achievement motivation (concern for individual excellence and competition) is supposed to have high correlation with competitive behaviour. But findings did not bear this result. A person with high achievement motivation is interested in results. If he perceives that by collaborating he can get better results, he is likely to collaborate. Similarly, if a person perceives that results are better (pay-off is higher) from competition, he is likely to compete against others.
Not only those who have tendency to collaborate but also those who have tendency to compete collaborate if collaborative behaviour has higher pay-off.
For instance, political parties who compete with each other often collaborate when it comes to winning an election compaign.

6. Need satisfaction : People join groups to satisfy their affiliation, achievement, power, social and esteem needs. New residents in a locality, for example, join the local club to satisfy their individual needs.
Even at work place, informal groups provide mental rest and release official tensions.

II. External Reasons

People join groups because group membership satisfies their needs by forces that lie outside the group. It provides benefits other than those provided by the group:

1. Interaction : Professionally qualified students become members of groups which have contacts with firms for job market. Their interaction with companies is not direct but through groups.

2. Personal goals : Group membership helps to achieve personal goals which are different from group goals. People join Lions Club or Rotary Club not because these clubs meet their personal goals (club goals may be different from personal goals) but because other members of the club help to establish contacts (business or otherwise) which satisfy their personal goals.

3. Superordinate goals : These goals are important to all the parties and cannot be achieved by any party alone.
Experimental conflict and competition were first created in two groups of adolescents who were taken out camping for several days. Later, situations were created in which problems could not be solved independently by either group (superordinate goal). It was found that perception of superordinate goals by both the groups, which were hitherto involved in conflict and competition with each other, changed their behaviour and they engaged in maximum possible collaboration.
Several factors contribute to development of superordinate goal.

(i) The goal should be attractive and desirable to all the members.

(ii) The goal should be seen as shareable so that all individuals (or groups) share it.

(iii) If the situation is seen as something in which the goal cannot be achieved by single individual or group without working with other(s), then it becomes a superordinate goal.

In traditional sports, members of a team competing with other teams have superordinate goal of getting higher score. Within the team itself, members play collaborative game because they perceive the superordinate goal. The goal of victory is attractive to all members, they see this as shareable goal, and each one knows it cannot be achieved single-handedly, that each has to work with others to achieve this goal.

When people see a goal as having all these three elements, it becomes a superordinate goal.

4. Perceived power : Another condition which contributes to collaboration in group is the perception of power. It can be power to reward and power to punish. Punishment may be in the form of depriving a person of the reward which he or she is likely to get. This may be done by holding back information or misleading the other person. Even the person at the lowest level in organisation can use negative power to create annoying situations: delaying matters, holding back information, giving information which creates misunderstandings, etc.
If people in the system perceive clearly that they have power which is positive in nature, that they may be able to contribute to and use their influence for the attainment of certain goals, this is perception of positive power. At the same time, it is important that they realise that others involved in the situation also have power, both positive and negative.

5. Mutual trust : Along with perception of each other’s power, it is important that parties do not use power against each other. Some amount of mutual trust is likely to lead to co-operation. Trust indicates high probability that power of the concerned party or individual will not be used in a mala fide way. Combination of perceived power and trust leads to co-operation.

6. Communication : communication amongst parties involved in the situation also contributes to collaboration. Several experiments have demonstrated that when representatives of the groups communicate with each other, the chances of collaboration increase.
Communication opens possibility of discussing the consequences of behaviour. It also helps the groups to discuss their perception of each other’s power and see that power turns into positive force for the benefit of all concerned. When people communicate as representatives of a group, it is important that the groups they represent trust them and representatives are sure that the commitment they make to other groups will be honoured by them.

7. Fait accompli : If groups or individuals live together and share certain norms, they begin to see good points in each other and collaboration begins to emerge. As long as individuals or groups do not work or live together, they may be prejudiced about each other. Poor communication or indifference can lead to prejudice.
For example, till representatives of the management and the union do not communicate with each other, management may think Union has no empathy for them. The realisation that they have to live or work together contributes to collaboration. Through sharing of experiences, they evolve common understanding and norms. Sharing a space may help each party to ‘experience’ and ‘see’ the other party’s strengths and good points.

6. Management of Informal Groups

Informal groups (or informal organisations) cannot be avoided. Managers should view them as pillars of support to formal structures. Many problems can be solved by informal groups if they are formally accepted. They speed up transmission of information and provide feedback on how people respond to policies and procedures. They provide useful tips on matters which cannot be officially deal with. They also promote team spirit which reduces the need for close control and supervision. Informal groups are a strong support and supplement to formal structures. Managers should, therefore, merge group goals with organisational goals. Following measures help to achieve this objective :

1. Managers view informal groups as support to formal structures.

2. They use these groups to obtain quick feedback on how people respond to plans, policies and procedures.

3. They view them as important supplement to formal groups.

4. They involve group members in group decision-making.

5. They integrate group goals with organisational goals and avoid inter-group conflicts.

6. They merge informal goals with positive attitude towards formal organisation structure.

7. They increase group cohesiveness by promoting inter-group competition, inter-personal attraction, consensus on group goals etc.

7. How do Groups Influence Member Behaviour

Groups satisfy needs of members in the following ways:

1. Members of informal groups have common values (social and cultural) which perpetuate group goals.

2. They fulfil needs of interaction, recognition and acceptance by others. Members derive individuality as part of informal groups.

3. They solve work-related problems in a friendly and supportive way.

4. They promote skills of communication, leadership and direction.

5. They promote cordial environment in the organisation.

6. They provide opportunities for personal growth.

7. They overcome stress and frustration of members through friendship, love and support.

8. Negative Aspects of Group Influence

Groups may prove to be counter-productive in the following cases:

1. Excessive conformity to norms hinders creativity if group norms (or goals) are different from organisational norms. Members are reluctant to act differently as they fear to lose group approval.

2. Negative attitude of group leaders promotes vested interest at the cost of organisational interest.

3. If group goals are different from organisational goals, members pursue group goals. There is conflict between formal and informal roles.

4. Since informal groups do not follow official channels of communication, they may spread false information or rumours. This is counter-productive for organisational activities.

5. If group norms and values are carried too far, they become resistant to change. Groups become overprotective about group values. People do not deviate from values or norms.

9. Group Processes and Functions

Groups perform the following processes and functions:

1. Assign Roles : Role is a set of expected behaviour attributed to someone who occupies a given position in a social unit. In formal groups, these roles are defined by job titles and positions. In informal groups, they are defined by their expectations and perceptions of other managers. Group members perform the following roles:

(i) Task-oriented roles : Members perform organisational tasks and keep other members focused on work.

(ii) Relations-oriented roles : They offer ideas and support other people’s ideas.

(iii) Self-oriented roles : These roles define personal expectations of members. They may or may not support the formal, task-oriented roles.

Members perform these roles in different degrees. High clarity in roles leads to high performance of the group.

2. Group Norms and Conformity : Group norms are acceptable standards or expectations shared by group members. They relate to output levels, absenteeism, promptness, dress, loyalty, etc.

Norms have powerful influence on performance. Members perform according to group norms.

Purpose of Group Norms

Group norms serve the following purposes :

(i) They define acceptable standards of behaviour.

(ii) They promote group cohesiveness.

(iii) They promote consistent, uniform and predictable behaviour.

(iv) They promote group discipline.

(v) They promote group culture as members interact with each other.

(vi) They provide order by restraining discretionary powers of members.

(vii) They ensure group effectiveness and survival.

Enforcement of Group Norms

Group norms can be enforced in the following ways :

(i) Members conform to norms as they want to be accepted by groups.

(ii) Members perceive rewards like esteem, recognition, appreciation, acceptance and social satisfaction through group norms.

(iii) Conformity to group norms strengthens group membership.

(iv) Penalties for non-conformance (disapproval, social boycott, loss of membership etc.) also promotes conformity to group norms.

3. Group Cohesiveness : Group cohesiveness is the degree to which members are attracted to the group and share the group goals. It is “the degree to which members are attracted to a group, are motivated to remain in the group, and are mutually influenced by one another.”

Group cohesiveness has the following merits :

      • It strengthens group goals and group norms.
      • Cohesive groups perceive management as supportive to group goals. They perform better than less cohesive groups.
      • Members communicate freely and better understand the feelings, emotions and behaviour of others.
      • Members collectively engage in decision-making. This provides higher satisfaction than less cohesive groups.
      • Mutual trust and confidence develop strong inter-personal relationships.
      • Membership of cohesive groups is stable. Members accept innovations and change.
      • High compatibility between group goals and organisational goals motivates to perform better than less cohesive groups.
      • Members achieve higher job satisfaction than members of less cohesive groups.
      • Groups that perform similar activities do not depend on others to get the work done.

Group cohesiveness leads to positive consequences when members accept change in organisational policies. Group norms are high, resistance to change is low and people subordinate group goals in favour of organisational goals.

4. Group Decision-Making : Group decision-making is more effective as decisions are based on extensive information. Groups spend substantial time on finding problems, solutions and their implementation. Group decisions involve superiors and subordinates which develop diverse, open and new ideas.

5. Group Communication : Groups communicate through informal channels. Messages are clearly understood by members. There is effective feedback from group members which corrects misunderstanding. It is an important supplement to formal communication. Information gaps in formal communication are filled by informal channels. It promotes healthy inter-personal relationships and speeds up the flow of information.

Though rumours spread through informal channels, judicious use of this channel avoids gossips and rumours. Informal channels help to attain group goals, solve group problems, improve group performance, increase group cohesiveness and resolve group conflicts.

6. Informal leadership : Though formal leaders lead the group, informal leaders emerge by common consent of group members. They direct group activities. They are confident and assertive to perform :

(i) Task role : They help members to achieve the formal goals. They provide unity of action to group efforts. Sales manager, for example, assigns territories to sales people and supervises the new sales force members.

(ii) Group building and maintenance role : Leaders provide emotional, psychological and social support to group members. They build group image and strengthen their solidarity. They settle non-work related disputes and keep members attached to the group.

It is often difficult for the same person to perform both these roles. Different members, therefore, become leaders for different roles.

10. Factors Affecting Group Processes and Functions

Functions and processes performed by groups are affected by the following factors :

1. Group size : Group size affects functions of the group. Smaller groups complete tasks faster than larger ones. They are more productive than large groups. Large groups, on the other hand, generate more facts, collect diverse and open viewpoints, generate more solutions to problems.

However, with increase in size of the group, contribution of individual member tends to decline. Responsibility for group goals gets dispersed amongst larger number of members. Relationship between individual input and group output cannot be maintained as group results cannot be attributed to single person. This reduces efficiency of the group. Large groups develop sub-groups, restrict participation by members, take time in making decisions, promote dominance by few etc.

What, then, is the optimum group size? It should be large enough to develop diverse viewpoints and small enough to fix responsibility and promote inter-personal interaction. Following points affect the optimum group size:

(i) Groups should have odd number of members. It eliminates ties when decisions are taken by vote. Odd number facilitates decision-making.

(ii) Usually five or seven makes the optimum size. It is neither too large nor too small. It allows diverse inputs and avoids negative outcomes of large groups.

2. Group composition : It represents the kind of individuals that make a group and affect its performance. Groups can be heterogeneous or hom*ogeneous.

Heterogeneous groups have dissimilar individuals, in terms of age, gender, education, experience, skills, culture etc.

hom*ogeneous groups have similar individuals.

Heterogeneous groups are generally more effective as they have people with diverse skills and backgrounds. There may be conflicting opinions but they perform better than hom*ogeneous groups.

3. Group goals and tasks : Groups are formed for some goals and perform tasks to achieve those goals. These goals promote cooperation and also result in role conflict. The tasks also vary in their skills, complexity, competence, etc.

These factors affect group performance in the following ways :

(i) Group size affects unity in group activities, formation of sub-groups, interaction amongst group members etc.

(ii) Group composition assignes roles to group members, affects quality of group leadership, group satisfaction etc.

(iii) Groups goals and tasks affect group decision-making, group communication, group cohesiveness etc.

11. Group Behaviour

Group behaviour defines the way people behave with each other. It explains the roles performed by members of the group. It reflects unity and commitment of members towards group and organisational goals. Group members empathise and actively interact with each other. Though groups expect the members to obey group norms, some difference in roles is evident. Differences develop novel and creative ideas.

George Homans describes three elements of group behaviour : activities, sentiments and interaction.

Activities are the tasks performed by group members. Members perform activities that achieve goals of the organisation.

While performing formal activities, members form small informal groups on the basis of sentiments.

The sentiments develop interaction for social satisfaction.

This interplay of activities, sentiments and interaction results in group behaviour which is different from formal behaviour. It defines group behaviour which is more inclined towards need satisfaction than formal goals of the organisation.

Members reinforce their attitudes and sentiments and tend to do tasks different from those defined by formal organisation.

12. Stages in Group Development

The model ofgroup developmentwas first proposed by BruceTuckmanin 1965. He presented a model of five stages of group development: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning.

Group Dynamics – Meaning, Features and Types of Group (4)

All thesephasesare necessary and inevitable for the team to grow, face challenges, find solutions, plan work, and deliver results.

A team cannot be expected to perform right when it is formed. Forming a team is just like maintaining a relationship. It takes time, patience, support and efforts to go through recognisable stages as members move from collection of strangers to a united group with common goals.

These stages are explained below:

1. Forming Stage (Orientation)

The first stage of group development is the forming stage. At this stage,the group just starts to come together and is described with anxiety and uncertainty.

A person’s behaviour is driven by his desire to be accepted by other members of the group. Conflict, controversy, misunderstanding and personal opinions are avoided even though members have just begun to form impressions of each other and understand what the group will do together.

At the forming stage, members understand group purpose, determine how the team is going to be organised and who will be responsible for what. They discuss major phases of group goal that include rough project schedule, outlining general group rules regarding when they will meet and discover what resources will be available for the group to use.

At this stage, group members learn what to do, how the group will operate, what is expected, and what is acceptable.

2. Storming Stage (Power Struggle)

The second stage of group development is the storming stage. At this stage, disputes and competition are high because members have understand the work and a general feel of belongingness towards the group prevails.

The dominating group members emerge, while less confrontational members stay in their comfort zone.

Issues like leadership, authority, rules, policies, norms, responsibilities, structure, evaluation criteria and reward systems arise during this stage. They help the group move to the next stage.

3. Norming Stage (Cooperation and Integration)

At this stage, it becomes enjoyable for the members to work together. Group interaction becomes easier, cooperative and productive. There is mutual give and take, open communication, bonding, and mutual respect.

Disputes or conflicts are comparatively easy to be resolved and the group gets back on track.

Though group leadership is important, the facilitator usually steps back a little and lets the group members take initiative to move forward together.

4. Performing Stage (Synergy)

Now the group is clear about its needs. It moves forward to work for the goals for which it is formed. The group becomes really united to perform.

At this stage, the morale of group members is high as they actively acknowledge the talent, skills and experience that each member brings to the group. A sense of belongingness prevails and group remains focused on its purpose and goal.

Members are flexible, interdependent, and trust each other. Leadership is distributive and members willingly adapt to needs of the group.

5. Adjourning Stage (Closure)

This stage of group is usually reached when the task has been successfully completed. The project is close to end and team members look forward to move in different directions.

This stage looks at the well-being of the team rather than handling the team through the original four stages of team growth.

13. Group Cohesiveness

Group cohesiveness is the attraction, loyalty and commitment of members to group goals. It is “the degree to which members are attracted to a group, are motivated to remain in the group, and are mutually influenced by one another.”

Determinants of Group Cohesiveness

The following factors affect group cohesiveness :

I. Factors that Increase Cohesiveness

II. Factors that Decrease Cohesiveness

I. Factors that Increase Cohesiveness

Members of a cohesive group share common goals, remain attached to one another, conform to group standards and unitedly work to achieve the goals. The following factors increase group cohesiveness :

1. Similar attitudes, values, beliefs and interests increase group cohesiveness, facilitate communication and develop understanding amongst group members.

2. Inter-group competition increases cohesiveness of each group as the goal is same. A basketball championship, for example, increases cohesiveness of each team to win the match.

3. Liking and attraction for each other increases group cohesiveness.

4. Success in group goals promotes group cohesiveness.

5. Size of the group also determines its cohesiveness. Small groups are generally more cohesive than big groups.

6. Consensus on group goals increases cohesiveness.

7. Dependence of members on each other to achieve group goals increases group cohesiveness.

II. Factors that Decrease Cohesiveness

When members are not strongly bonded to work, it declines group cohesiveness. The following factors decrease group cohesiveness :

1. Increase in size of the group decreases cohesiveness.

2. When members have conflicting opinions, group cohesiveness declines.

3. While inter-group competition increases cohesiveness, intra-group competition decreases cohesiveness. Intra-group competition (competition amongst members of the same group) promotes individual goals at the cost of group goals.

4. If less dominant members surrender to the views of dominant members, this declines group cohesiveness.

5. Unpleasant group interaction, dissimilarity amongst attitudes, beliefs and values decrease cohesiveness.

6. Involvement in activities outside the group and competition amongst members for resources within the group reduces group cohesiveness.

7. Heterogeneous groups with members from different age groups, job responsibilities, qualification and status decease cohesiveness.

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Group Dynamics – Meaning, Features and Types of Group (2024)


Group Dynamics – Meaning, Features and Types of Group? ›

Group dynamics refers to the individual setting, behavior, dynamics, skills, and attitudes of members within a group, that is driven by a common identity and shared objectives. A group consists of the following: Name: Provides a distinct identity, like law administrators.

What is group dynamics and types of groups? ›

Group dynamics describe the effects these roles and behaviours have on the group as a whole, and on individual group members. A positive group dynamic is one where a team can trust one another, hold each other accountable, and collaborate effectively to complete tasks and achieve certain goals.

What is the main feature of group dynamics? ›

Group dynamics refers to the attitudinal and behavioral characteristics of a group. Group dynamics concern how groups form, their structure and process, and how they function. Group dynamics are relevant in both formal and informal groups of all types.

What was the dynamics of the group? ›

The social process by which people interact and behave in a group environment is called group dynamics. Group dynamics involves the influence of personality, power, and behaviour on the group process.

What is a group and what are the features of a group? ›

1) A group consists of more than one person. (2) They meet together to satisfy some common motive or common purpose say to collect money for flood affected persons, or national defence fund. The common motive may be biogenic or sociogenic. (3) The group may disintegrate when the common motive is satisfied.

What is group dynamics and examples? ›

Examples of evidence of positive group dynamics include communication between group members, progress toward achievement of the goals of the group, and group care-taking. Negative group dynamics are manifest in group think and evaluation apprehension.

What is group dynamics explained simply? ›

Group dynamics deals with the attitudes and behavioral patterns of a group. It can be used as a means for problem-solving, teamwork, and to become more innovative and productive as an organization.

What are the elements of group dynamics? ›

Group dynamics is the study of the actions, changes, and processes within groups and between groups. The five main elements of group dynamics are interaction, goals, interdependence, structure, and cohesiveness.

What is the purpose of group dynamics? ›

Group dynamics as a term can be used as a means for solving any sort of problem, influencing teamwork, and to become more innovative and productive as an organization. This concept of group dynamics will provide you with the strengths, success factors and measures of it, along with other professional tools.

How many types of groups are there? ›

Four basic types of groups have traditionally been recognized: primary groups, secondary groups, collective groups, and categories.

Which of the following is an example of group dynamics? ›

Final answer: Group dynamics can be observed when a large group of people think and act alike, when one person serves as a moderator in a group conversation, and when tasks are divided among group members.

How do group dynamics affect an individual's behaviour? ›

Group dynamics affect an individual's behavior by influencing their confidence, control, and effectiveness within the group. Leaders who align with group norms have more influence, while those who do not have less control and effectiveness.

What is group dynamics in culture? ›

Group dynamics are the forces that emerge and take shape as members interact with each other over the life of a group. These dynamic forces are the product of both the here-and-now interactions of group members and what members bring to the group from the larger social environment.

What is the definition of a group? ›

a. : a number of individuals assembled together or having some unifying relationship. a study group. b. : an assemblage of objects regarded as a unit.

What is the classification of groups? ›

Group Classification is the process of categorising groups based on certain characteristics or properties. This can be size, goals, internal structure, or the methods they use to achieve their objectives.

What are the stages of a group? ›

These stages are commonly known as: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Tuckman's model explains that as the team develops maturity and ability, relationships establish, and leadership style changes to more collaborative or shared leadership.

What are the two types of groups? ›

Sociologist Charles Horton Cooley (1864–1929) suggested that groups can broadly be divided into two categories: primary groups and secondary groups (Cooley 1909).

How do you identify group dynamics? ›

Assessing the team's stage is essential for identifying and managing group dynamics because each stage (forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning) comes with distinct characteristics and challenges.

How many group dynamics are there? ›

The five stages of group dynamics are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.

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