The Nine Old Men - Vestibular (2024)

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TheNineOldMenLearnfromthemenwhochangedanimationforever.WaltDisney’s team of core animators,who he affectionately called his “NineOldMen,”were known for creating Disney’s most famous works, as well as refining the 12 basicprinciplesofanimation.FollowmasteranimatorandDisneylegendAndreasDejaashetakesyouthroughthemindsandworksofthesenotableanimators.AnapprenticetotheNineOldMenhimself,Dejagivesspecialattentiontoeachanimatorandprovidesathoughtfulanalysisoftheirtechniques,whichincludefiguredrawing,acting,storystructure,andexecution.Thein-depthanalysisofeachanimator’sworkwillallowyoutorefineyourapproachtocharacteranimation.RaresequentialdrawingsfromtheWaltDisneyAnimationResearchLibraryalsogive you unprecedented access and insight into the most creative minds that changed thecourseofanimation.• Instruction and analysis on the works of each of the Nine Old Men broaden yourcreativechoicesandapproachestocharacteranimation.•Originaldrawings,somenever-before-seenbythepublic,areexploredindepth,givingyoubehind-the-scenesaccessintoDisneyanimationhistory.•Gainfirst-handinsightintothefoundationoftimelesscharactersandscenesfromsomeofDisney’smostmemorablefeatureandshortfilms.AndreasDejawastenyearsoldwhenhefirstappliedforajobasaDisneyanimator.Thestudiowrote back toDeja telling him that they had no openings, butwere always on thelookoutfornewtalent.Attheageof20,heappliedagainandwasaccepted.ThislaunchedalongandsuccessfulcareerwithDisney.Dejahaslefthismarkonsomeofthemostmemorableand successfulDisney animated features and shorts.His earlywork includes animation andcharacterdesign forTheGreatMouseDetective,Oliver&Company,andWhoFramedRogerRabbit. In addition, he is known for his animation of some of Disney’s most evil villains:Gaston,Jafar,andScar.ThelistofmemorablecharacterscontinueswithKingTriton,MickeyMouse,Hercules,Lilo,Goofy,Tigger,MamaOdie,andJuju.In2006,atthe35thAnnieAwards,Deja was awarded the Winsor McCay Award for outstanding contribution to the art ofanimation.In2015,hewasnamedaDisneyLegendbytheWaltDisneyCompany.Presently,Dejaisworkingonhisownindependentanimatedshortfilmsandisactivelyinvolvedinhisanimation-relatedblog,DejaView.TheNineOldMenLESSONS,TECHNIQUES,ANDINSPIRATIONFROMDISNEY’SGREATANIMATORSAndreasDejaCRCPressTaylor&FrancisGroup6000BrokenSoundParkwayNW,Suite300BocaRaton,FL33487-2742©2016Taylor&FrancisCRCPressisanimprintoftheTaylor&FrancisGroup,aninformabusinessThisbookcontainsinformationobtainedfromauthenticandhighlyregardedsources.Reasonableeffortshavebeenmadetopublishreliabledataandinformation,buttheauthorandpublishercannotassumeresponsibilityforthevalidityofallmaterialsortheconsequencesoftheiruse.Theauthorsandpublishershaveattemptedtotracethecopyrightholdersofallmaterialreproducedinthispublicationandapologizetocopyrightholdersifpermissiontopublishinthisformhasnotbeenobtained.Ifanycopyrightmaterialhasnotbeenacknowledgedpleasewriteandletusknowsowemayrectifyinanyfuturereprint.ExceptaspermittedunderU.S.CopyrightLaw,nopartofthisbookmaybereprinted,reproduced,transmitted,orutilizedinanyformbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopying,microfilming,andrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutwrittenpermissionfromthepublishers.Forpermissiontophotocopyorusematerialelectronicallyfromthiswork,pleaseaccesswww.copyright.com(http://www.copyright.com/)orcontacttheCopyrightClearanceCenter,Inc.(CCC),222RosewoodDrive,Danvers,MA01923,978-750-8400.CCCisanot-for-profitorganizationthatprovideslicensesandregistrationforavarietyofusers.FororganizationsthathavebeengrantedaphotocopylicensebytheCCC,aseparatesystemofpaymenthasbeenarranged.TrademarkNotice:Productorcorporatenamesmaybetrademarksorregisteredtrademarks,andareusedonlyforidentificationandexplanationwithoutintenttoinfringe.LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataDeja,Andreas,1957–Thenineoldmen:lessons,techniques,andinspirationfromDisney’sgreatanimators/AndreasDeja.pagescm1.Animation(Cinematography)—Miscellanea.2.Animators—UnitedStates.3.Animatedfilms—UnitedStates—History—20thcentury.4.WaltDisneyProductions—History—20thcentury.I.Title.TR897.5.D452015777’.7—dc232015010907ISBN:978-0-415-84335-5(hbk)ISBN:978-0-203-75661-4(ebk)DesignedandtypesetbyAlexLazarou(alexlazarou@aol.com)VisittheTaylor&FrancisWebsiteathttp://www.taylorandfrancis.comandtheCRCPressWebsiteathttp://www.crcpress.comhttp://www.copyright.comhttp://http://www.copyright.com/http://www.taylorandfrancis.comhttp://www.crcpress.comIdedicatethisbooktoEricLarson,whosawmypotentialasananimatorwhenIwasstillanartstudent,andeventuallyhiredmetojoinWaltDisneyProductions’AnimationDepartment.CONTENTSAcknowledgmentsTheAuthorPrefaceLesClarkWolfgangReithermanEricLarsonWardKimballMiltKahlFrankThomasOllieFohnstonJohnLounsberyMarcDavisGlossaryIndexACKNOWLEDGMENTSIexpressmydeepgratitudetoeverybody,whosharedmyenthusiasmforthisbookprojectfromdayone.Theyare:•MyeditorsfromFocalPress.LaurenMattos,whoaskedmeinthefirstplacewhetherIwasinterested in sharing my knowledge in the art of Disney’s Nine Old Men, and CaitlinMurphy,whopatientlyoversawthebulkofthisbook’sproduction.BothLaurenandCaitlingaveme the kind ofwarm guidance thatwas verymuch appreciated by this first time-writer.• Members of Disney’s fabulous Animation Research Library (ARL). Mary Walsh, themanagingdirector,who supported the project bydelegating a number of knowledgeablestaffmemberstohelpresearchendlessvisualmaterials.•ResearchmanagerFoxCarneypatientlystoodbymeduringmylongselectionprocessandprovidedmewithnumerousscansofbeautifulartworkIdidn’tevenknowstillexisted.• ResearchersJackieVasquez,AnnHansen,andDougEngella,allsearchedmethodicallyforanimationdrawingsthatbestcomplementedmywritings.•EricBoydconductedsometastefulclean-upandpreppingofthefiles.• Michael Pucher, Mathieu Fretschel, and Idris Erba from the Image Capture Teamphotographedsomeartfrommypersonalcollectionofanimationart.• Last not least Roger Viloria, who helpedme to select and scan original drawings I hadaccumulatedovertheyears.During thewholeprocessofwritingandgatheringgorgeousmaterial for thisbook I foundmyself ina stateofutterdelightandkept thinking that there really isnobetter time spentthanresearchingthemasterworksofWaltDisney’sincomparableanimators.THEAUTHORAndreasDejafirstappliedforajobasaDisneyanimatorattheageoften.BorninPolandand raised in Germany, he remembers writing to the studio immediately after seeing TheJungleBook. “I’d never seen aDisney feature before,” he recalls. “Itwas one of those keyexperiencesbecauseIjustcouldn’tbelievewhatI’dseen.Allthosedrawingsmoving,thinking,andactingsoreal.”PhotobyRogerViloriaThe studio wrote back to Deja explaining that there were no openings but they werealwaysonthelookoutfornewtalent.Thisofferedhimtheencouragementheneededandthemotivationtoworkhardtowardsthatgoal.Attheageof20,aftercompletinghisstudies,heappliedagainandthistimehewasaccepted.Working with Eric Larson, one of Disney’s legendary “Nine Old Men,” Deja completedseveral testsandwenton todoearlycharacterdesign,costumeresearch,andanimation forTheBlackCauldron(1985).HisnextassignmentwasonTheGreatMouseDetective(1986),forwhichheanimated themousequeenandher robotic twin.Dejahelpeddesignmanyof thecharacters forOliver&Company (1988) anddid some animationbefore spending a year inLondonasaleadanimatoronWhoFramedRogerRabbit(1988),underthedirectionofRichardWilliams.OnThe Little Mermaid (1989), Deja oversaw the animation of King Triton, a powerfulfigure that requiredexpert skills indraftsmanshipandactingability. ForDisney’sAcademyAward-winninganimatedmusicalBeautyandtheBeast (1991),heservedas thesupervisinganimator for the first of his many Disney villains, the very pompous and narrow-mindedGaston.DejacontinuedtoexplorehisdarkersidebydesigningandanimatingtheevilvizierJafarforDisney’sanimatedmusicalhitAladdin (1992).Hewentontosupervisetheanimationofthepower-hungryvillain,Scar,inTheLionKing(1994),whichquicklyearnedaplaceasoneoftheindustry’sbiggestfilmsofalltime.For his next assignment, Deja relocated to Disney’s Paris animation facility for a stintoverseeingtheanimationofMickeyMouseinRunawayBrain,thestudio’sfirstnewMickeyshortsince1953andanOscarnominee in1996 forBestAnimatedShort.Following that,hereturned to Burbank, where he took on the challenging assignment of bringing life andpersonalitytothetitleheroinDisney’s35thfull-lengthanimatedfeature,Hercules(1997).Hewent on to design and supervise the animation for the charming and unpredictable littleHawaiiangirlLiloinLilo&Stitch (2002),whichhasbeenhailedasoneof thestudio’smostentertainingandimaginativefeatures.DejacontributedanimationforseveralcharactersinDisney’slive-action/animatedmusicalEnchanted (2007), and served as one of the supervising animators on Goofy’s big-screenreturn in the short film,How toHookUpYourHomeTheater (2007).Hewas a supervisinganimator onDisney’s hand-drawn animated featureThe Princess and the Frog, released in2009.HealsosupervisedtheanimationofTiggerforanewWinniethePoohfeature,whichwasreleasedtheatricallyin2011.In 2007, hewas honoredwith theWinsorMcKayAward fromASIFA (the InternationalAnimatedFilmAssociation).Currently,AndreasDejaisworkingonhisownindependentanimatedshortfilms.Healsocontributesregularlyanimation-relatedmaterialonhisblogDejaView.PREFACEOne day in the late 1970s I discussed Disney animation with my life-drawing teacher.“AnybodycanlearnhowtoanimatelikeDisney,”heclaimed.“It’salltechnique,butnoart.”Iwas shocked! Thismanwas a terrific teacher and an artist in his own right. I doubted hisjudgment quietly, having already spent endless hours studying the fluid motion of DisneyanimationwiththehelpofSuper-8filmclips.Icouldnotimaginethatanybodycouldlearntoanimatelikethisbypickingupafewsimpletricks.Itseemedtomethatinordertocreatelifethroughdrawings,anartisthadtobecomeveryinvolvedandcommitted.Myartschooldidn’tofferanyanimationclasses,whichmeantifIwantedtopursueafuturecareer in animation, a self-taught method would be the only option. After giving myselfassignmentslikewalkcyclesandotherpenciltests,IfoundoutthatDisneyStudioshadstartedatrainingprogramfornewtalentjoiningtheanimationdepartment.ItturnedoutthatveterananimatorEricLarsonworkedwithnewcomersondevelopingtheircrafttoeventuallybecomefullyfledgedanimators.Aboutoneyearlater, inAugust1980,Iappliedfortheprogramandwasluckyenoughtogetaccepted.OneofthethingsIrememberisEricgoingovermydrawingsfromasceneIwastryingtoanimate.LookingovertheshoulderofoneofDisney’sgreatanimatorsandwatchinghimashestrengthenedmyposesandtimingwasintimidatingandthrillingatthesametime.When viewing my corrected scene, I couldn’t believe my eyes. Eric’s input added puremagic; thecharacter’sactionsbecamemoreclearandbelievable.Whatstartedoutasmessygraphicmotion,nowseemedtoshowsignsoflife.ItwasEricwhofirstintroducedmetotwootherDisneyanimators,FrankThomasandOllieJohnston,whowereinthemidstofwritingtheirfirstbookonDisneyanimation,TheIllusionof Life. Conversations with these artists were fascinating because, after all, they had beeninvolvedwithalmostallofDisney’sanimatedfilms.Thesemoviesshapedmychildhoodandmade me wonder, how on earth this level of excellence was achieved. Now I had theopportunitytoaskendlessquestionsabouttheartofcharacteranimation.WhenIwasstillinGermany,theterm“Disney’sNineOldMen”hadbeenfamiliartome;Iknew thenamesof this elitegroupof animators frombooksandmagazinearticles.What Iwasn’t aware of was the fact that two of them had already passed away when I startedworkingforthestudio.JohnLounsberyandLesClarkwerenolongeralive,butIwasluckytogettoknowandbecomefriendswithsevenofthenine,includingEricLarson,FrankThomas,andOllieJohnston.WoolieReithermanstillworkedat thestudioduringtheearly1980s,developingideasfornewprojects.MarcDavishadretired,but livedcloseby,andheandhiswifeAliceenjoyedinteractingwith a new generation of animators.Ward Kimball lectured occasionally at thestudio and was always up for a lunch date. Milt Kahl had moved to San Francisco afterspendingmorethan40yearsasananimatoratDisney.Ivisitedhimonceortwiceayearand,despitehisroughreputation,foundhimtobegenerouswithhistimeandstimulatingtotalkto.IwasluckytobeabletojoinDisneyatatimewhensomanymasteranimatorswerestillaliveand,asitturnedout,veryapproachable.Everyconversationwitheachofthemleftmeincrediblyinspiredandcompelledtostudytheirworkingreaterdetail.Atthattimethestudiokept all of the animated, hand-drawn scenes ever done in a makeshift archive called theMorgue,whichwasplacedinthebasem*ntoftheInkandPaintDepartment.Newcomerslikemyselfwereencouragedtostudythismaterialupcloseandlearnfromit.Andwhataschoolitwas!Whether it wasMedusa pulling off her false eyelashes, Bambi chasing a butterfly, orBaloodancingwithMowgli,flippingthosescenesleftmewithafeelingofeitherfrustration—Iamnevergoingtobeasgoodasthis—orutterelation—lookhowincrediblethismediumcanbe!InthisbookItrytoshareanecdotesandreflectionsbytheseincredibleartists—asrelatedtome—andpresentsomeoftheirbrilliantwork.My art teacherwaswrong;Disney animation is somuchmore than technique.Creatingpersonalities on the screen throughdrawings is extremelydifficult andonly succeeds if theanimator finds a way to express him- or herself personally. As Marc Davis said, it is theultimateartform,involvingdrawing,acting,music,dancing,andpainting,allcombinedintoonemedium.TheNineOldMenLesClarkWhenLesClarkretiredfromtheanimationindustryin1975hehadworkedforWaltDisneyProductionsforalmosthalfacentury.HefirstmetWaltDisneyin1925atthecandystorehewasworkingforpart-time,asClarkwasstillattendinghighschool.Acoupleofyears later,withno formalart trainingbutanavid interest in thenewmediumofanimation,heaskedWaltforajob.His portfolio consisted only of a few redrawn illustrations from the popular magazineCollegeHumor, butDisney saw something in his lively linework, and so Leswas hired in1927.Hespenthisfirstyearatthestudioasacameraoperator.Clarkalsolearnedthecraftofinking the animators’ drawings on celluloid sheets, so-called cels, before they werephotographed on a painted background under the camera. Eventually he became an in-betweeneron sceneswithOswald theLuckyRabbit.WhenWaltDisney foundhimself in afeudwithhis filmdistributor,whoowned the character’s rights, he refused to renewa lessattractivecontractandwalkedawayfromtheOswaldfilmseries.Waltwasinneedofanewcharacter, and soonMickeyMousewas born.AnimatorUb Iwerks drew the first couple ofMickeyshorts,PlaneCrazyandTheGallopin’Gaucho,andhisassistantLesClarkdidthein-betweens.ButitwasMickey’sthirdfilmSteamboatWilliethatresonatedwithaudiencesinabigway.Waltproducedthisshortwithsound,andtheenthusiasticresponsewasabigshotinthearmforthestrugglinganimationstudio.NewMickeyfilmsfollowedtogreatsuccess,butWalt alsowanted to diversify and started another series called Silly Symphonies, inwhichmusic played a vital role. The first one was The Skeleton Dance, which again was mostlyanimated by Iwerks.Clark got the chance to draw a scene inwhich one skeleton uses theribcageofanotheronelikeaxylophone.AcoupleoffrivolousskeletonsmarkedthebeginningofClark’scareerasananimator.©DisneyIntheseearlydaysofanimation,manydiscoverieswereabouttobemade,andsquashandstretchwasoneofthem.Bydistortingthecharacter’sfaceandoverallbodymass,theillusionoflifesuddenlybecamemorebelievablethaneverbefore.Itseemedthatbyshowingchangewithin the rhythm of the character, the animated performances became much moreconvincing.OnecharacterthatcametolifethroughextensiveuseofsquashandstretchwasClaraCluckintheshortOrphan’sBenefit.SheplaysaneccentricoperasingerduringatalentshowthatishostedbyMickeyMouse.Clarkanimatedher entering the stagewithaweightywalk.Herheftybodypartsmovewithoverlappingmotion,andtheeffectisentertainingandconvincing.Asshesingsheraria,Clarkagainusesdramaticdistortionsinherbodytoemphasizethehighnotes.ClarkusedstrongsquashandstretchonthecharacterofClaraCluckintheshortOrphan’sBenefit.©DisneyLes Clark had absorbed all of Iwerks’ workmethods including his way of staging gagsconvincingly.Charactersneededtobedrawninclearsilhouetteinordertocommunicatetheirhumorousantics.Therewasalsoasurrealqualitytothosegags;nothingseemedimpossible.WhenMinnie jumps out of an airplane to get away fromMickey, her panties turn into aparachuteandshelandssafely.Crudeasthismightseemtoday,animatedgagslikethisgotbiglaughsfromaudiencesatthetime.WhenIwerksleftDisneytoopenhisownanimationstudio,ClarkbecametheleadanimatorforMickeyMouse.In1935,MickeystarredinhisfirstcolorshortfilmTheBandConcert,inwhichheconductsanorchestraoutintheopen.Afterseveralinterruptions by characters like Horace Horsecollar and Donald Duck, a tornado suddenlystrikes.ButMickeykeepshiscoolandcontinuestodirecthismusicians,evenwheneverybodyisbeinglifteduphighintheairbythestorm.LesClarkanimatedalloftheimportantsceneswith Mickey, whose movements needed to be in sync with the music at all times. TheanimationisalreadysmootherthanwhatIwerkshadachievedwiththecharacterearlyon.ButDisney’s ongoing demands for improved animated performances would soon lead tobreathtakingnewheightsintheartofcharacteranimation.LesClarkaddedgreaterappealandrangetoMickey’sperformances.©DisneyAyoungartistnamedFredMoorehadbeenassistingClark’sscenes,butduringtheearly1930s came into his own as an animator.Hewas a natural, intuitive draftsman,whoneverseemed to struggle with any of his assignments. Everything he drew had appeal andpersonality.Totheenvyofmanyofhiscolleagues,WaltDisneyencouragedhisanimatorstostudy Moore’s style in order to capture some of its special charm. By 1936, Moore hadredefined the design for Disney characters, and his way of drawing influenced the entirestudio.Oneparticulardetail isworthpointingout;manyof theearlycharactersweregivenverysimpleeyes,usuallyacoupleofverticalovalshapes,paintedsolidblack.Moorecreatedrealistic eye units, in which oval white shapes were drawn with small black pupils. Thisresultedinagreaterfacialexpressiverangeaswellassubtleeyearticulation.AnimatorsArtBabbittandLesClarkmadefulluseofthisnewconceptwhentheybothanimatedAbnerthemouseforthefilmTheCountryCousin.Bothartistsalsopushed theboundariesofelasticitywhen it came to exaggerate expressions. Clark animated a series of scenes in which thecountrymouse,lookingatmountainsofhumanfood,can’thelphimselfbutstuffhismouthinthebroadestwaypossible.Abnerthecountrymousewithamouthfulofcheese.©DisneyBroadaswellasnuancedperformanceswereneededtobringthegroupofdwarfstolifeforDisney’sfirstfeaturefilmSnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarfs.Clarkhadtheexperienceandthetalent to animate important acting scenes. Fred Moore’s cartoony designs of the dwarfsallowedforthekindofrich,fluidmovementsthatmostanimatorsenjoyed.Duringthefilm’syodel song,SnowWhite enjoys thedwarfs’ individualmusicalperformances,before joiningthemforadance.ClarkanimatedseveralscenesofthedwarfsplayingdifferentinstrumentsincludingSleepy,whoplaysaflute.Atonepointhepausesandgetsintoabigyawn,whensuddenlyapeskyhousefly inspects the insideofSleepy’swide-openmouth.Theunwelcomevisitor isquicklychasedawaywithbriskhand-gestures.Thesceneisjustoversixsecondslong,yeteverybitofactionreadsveryclearly.Enoughtimeisgiventoeachpartoftheperformance:theyawn,theintrudinginsect,Sleepy’srealizationofwhatishappening,andhimtakingaction.ClarkanimatedSleepyplayingafluteinSnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarfs.©DisneyItcomesasnosurprisethatLesClarkgottoanimatemanysceneswithPinocchio,thetitlecharacter of Disney’s second feature. While Milt Kahl, Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnstonsupervised Pinocchio’s animation, Clark had no problems helping out wherever he wasneeded.When, toward the endof the film,Geppetto is reunitedwith thewoodenboy inside thewhale’s stomach, Clark gave some insightful performances. After a big sneeze, Pinocchio’sdonkeyearspopoutfromunderhishat,shockingnotonlyGeppetto,butFigarothecat,andCleothegoldfish.Thisisanawkwardsituation,andPinocchioisatalossforwords.Heholdshisdonkeytail,deeplyembarrassed.Thefeelingofguiltandshameisbeautifullyportrayedinthesepoignantscenes.ThisisoneofmanyClarkscenesthatgiveusstronginsightintohowthecharacterisfeelinginamomentofembarrassment.SincereemotionshelptomakePinocchiocomealivetoanaudience.©DisneyA very different type of assignment came along when Les Clark started to work onFantasia:heanimatedavarietyoffairiesforthefilm’sNutcrackerSuite.Thedevelopmentofspecificpersonalitieswasnotrequired,sincewenevergettoknowthesenaturesprites.Clarkbasedtheirelegantmovementsonhummingbirds,whichgavetheirflyingpatternsabeautifulstop-and-gofeeling.Thesedelicatefairiesweredrawnwithsizablewingsandlonglegs,whichhelpedtodefinecharmingfeminineposes.Delicatedrawingandsubtletimingaddedagracefultouchtothefairies.©DisneyClarkalsoanimatedanimportantpartofTheSorcerer’sApprentice.WhenMickeyMousecommands the broom to come to life, he does so with great intensity. While his body isstretchedinastrongforwardarch,hisfingersflutterfiercely.Thisconvulsion-likemovementheightensthescene’stensionandmakesusbelievethattherearerealmagicalpowersatplay.This is anextraordinarypieceofanimation,dramatically stagedandperfectly timed. It alsoshowsanintensityinMickey’semotionsthathadnotbeenseenbefore.Hisattitudechangesafterhesucceedsinmakingthebroomfollowhimtoafountain.ClarkanimatesMickeyherewith a confident attitude, as he hops along and leads the way. The movement is madeinterestingbytheadditionofcomplexoverlappingactioninMickey’soversizedcoat.Realisticdesignsofthefabric’sfoldsperfectlyenhancethecharacter’sbouncymotion.InTheSorcerer’sApprentice,ClarkgaveMickeyanintensitythathadnotbeenseenbefore.©DisneyWhileMickeymighthavebeenconductingtheuniverseinFantasia,inthe1942shortfilmTheSymphonyHourheisinchargeofanimpairedorchestra,whichconsistsofclassicDisneycharacterslikeDonaldDuck,GoofyandHoraceHorsecollar.Mickeyhadgonethroughafewdesignchangesduringtheearly1940s.Theinsideofhisearswerepaintedingrey,andtheyalmost moved dimensionally. In previous films his perfectly round ears just slid across hisupper head.While his torsowas drawn a bit smaller,more volumewas given to his nose,hands,andfeet.LesClarkanimatedtheopeningsceneswhenthemusicianstryveryhardtofollowMickey’slead.Asananimatoritwouldbeachallengetofindinterestingwaysfortheconductor’smovements,particularlywhenthebeatisfairlyeven,asitisinthissectionofthefilm.ButClarkvariesMickey’shandgesturesjustenoughtogivetheanimationtexture.Eachhandactionneedstoendoneortwoframesaheadoftheactualsoundinordertofeelinsyncwiththemusic.WithTheSymphonyHour,ClarkshowedagainthathewasanexpertatanimatingMickeyMouse.©DisneyMusicalsoplayedarole,whenitcametobringingalittletraintolifeduringashortsectionfromthefilmTheThreeCaballeros. JoséCariocainvitesDonaldDucktojoinhimonatrainride to the city of Baia. LesClark’s animation of the spirited locomotive is charming, as itchugs along to an energetic musical beat through a landscape that is reminiscent of achildren’sbookillustration.ThemovementsevokethealluringsimplicityfoundintheworkofClark’s formermentorUb Iwerks.All goeswell on the journey until the naughtyAracuanBirddrawsseparatingtracksontheground,whichcausesthelittletraintoloseallhiswagonsfor a few tensemoments, until they all get reunited near the train station. This train goesthrough realhumanemotions, fromhaving fun toanxietyand then relief at theendof thesequence. No arms or legs needed, not even a face. Yet Clark articulates these feelings byoffsettingthevariouslocomotivepartsinawaythatcommunicatesadefinitivestateofmind.ThetraininTheThreeCaballerosdisplaysemotions,despitehavingnolimbsorface.©DisneyDuringtheSecondWorldWar,boxofficerevenuesshrank,andthestudiohadtoputideasformoreambitiousstorytellingonhold.Disneycontinuedproducingfeature-lengthpackagefilms,which consisted of a number of shorts. Clark continued animating on film titles likeMakeMineMusicandSongoftheSouth,butitwasn’tuntilFunandFancyFreethathefoundasignatureassignment.TheMickeyandtheBeanstalksegmentfeaturedanunusualcharacter,theSingingHarp.This combinationof fairyandmusical instrumentpresented theanimatorwithlimitationsasfarasmotiongoes.Onlyherupperbodycouldmove,therestwasattachedtothewoodenharp.Clarkusedelegantarmmovements,asshepointsouttoMickeywhereWillie the Giant hid the key that is needed to free Goofy and Donald. Subtle, beautifuldrawingandgracefulanimationmadethisuniquecharactermemorable.ClarkcreatedamemorablecharacterintheSingingHarpfromMickeyandtheBeanstalk.©DisneyAnother curiousassignment camealongwith the filmMelodyTime. It featured a sectioncalledBumbleBoogie,a jazzedupversionofRimsky-Korsakov’scomposition“TheFlightofThe Bumble Bee.” This bee character flies through a “musical nightmare,” as the narratorexplainsattheshortfilm’sopening.Inhisanimation,LesClarkneededtokeepupwiththescore’shighenergyandrhythm.Appealingdesignandenergetictiminghelpedtomakethistinycharactercomealive.©DisneyThevisualsareamongthemostsurrealsceneseveranimatedatDisney.Thebee isbeingpursuedandattackedbyunfriendly flowers,musical instruments, andabstract lines.Atonepointduringthechasehedecidestofightbackandbringsthishorriddreamtoanend.Thereisn’tmuchcharacterdevelopmentinvolved,butClarkstillmakesusfeelsympathetictowardthelittlebee.Almostbeingcastagainsttype,LesClarkjoinedcolleaguesEricLarsonandMarcDavisinanimating the very realistic and beautiful Cinderella. The live-action reference, featuringactress Helene Stanley, proved to be both helpful and a curse. The footage provided theanimators with acting patterns, but how should these movements by a real woman betranslatedintosuccessfulgraphicmotiononpaper?Thereisanessence,anemotionalcorethatneeds to be found and enhanced for an animated character. Amongmany sceneswith thefilm’s title character, Clark animated her delivering an invitation from the palace to herstepmother.When the letter is being read out loud,Cinderella finds out that every eligiblemaidenistoattendtheroyalball.Shestates,“ThatmeansIcango,too.”Herstepmotherplaysalong and responds, “If you find something suitable to wear!” The following scene showsCinderellawith such relief and joy, she is alive in themost convincingway.Her emotionalstate could not have been drawn and animated any better, as she says, “Oh, thank you,stepmother,”beforeexiting.ThereisatruthandhonestyinthewayClarkhandledthescene,asifhefeltthecharacter’shopeandjoy.Clark’sanimationofCinderellaprovedthathewasperfectlyabletodealwithdifficult,realisticassignments.©DisneyHisstronganimationofCinderella led toClark’s involvementwithDisney’snext leadinglady, Alice from the film Alice in Wonderland. The technique would be similar, makingintelligentuseof live-actionreference footage inorder topresentayounggirldealingwithadversesituations.Oneofhis sequences showsAlice growingdramatically in size inside theWhiteRabbit’shouse, to a point where her arms and legs are sticking out of doors and windows. Thispresented certain staging challenges.On the onehand,Aliceneeded to lookuncomfortableandawkwardunder these circ*mstances and, on theotherhand, sheneeded to fit into thissmallhouseinabelievableway.Dramaticperspectivesonhumansarenotaneasythingtoachieve,butClark’stalentsasadraftsmanhelpedtopresentunusualupanddownshotsverysuccessfully.ClarktackledthechallengeoffittinganenormousAliceintotheWhiteRabbit’shouse.©DisneyHavingworkedwellwithMarcDavisbefore,LesClarkjoinedhiscolleagueagaintohelpanimatesceneswithTinkerBell,theemotionalfairyinthefilmPeterPan.WhileDavisdidherintroductoryscenes,ClarkdrewTinkerBellaftersheaccidentallyendsuptrappedinadrawer.WhenWendycharmsPeterPanduringconversation,Tinkknowsthatsheisnotgoingtolikethisgirl.Inaclose-upscene,weseeherliftingupathimbleveryslowlytorevealherface.Sheliterallyturnsred,fullofjealousy.EventhoughMarcDavissupervisedtheanimationofTinkerBell,LesClarkdidnotmindbeingthesecond-in-command.©DisneyAfter a string of animated female characters, Les Clark switched gears on his nextassignmentforthefilmLadyandtheTramp.WeseehisworkveryearlyoninthefilmwhenLady as a puppy refuses to be separated from her new owners at night. During severalattempts,JimDeartriestomakeLadystaydownstairsbylockingherinaroom,butshefindsnew ways to break free. A daunting staircase separates her from the humans’ bedroomupstairs. Undeterred, she goes on the daunting uphill journey, one step at a time. Clark’scharminganimationcontainsalltheclumsinessofarealpuppy.Herfeetcan’tquitekeepupwith her movements. Being so young she is still uncoordinated, and that is where theentertainmentlies.Witheachjumpupthestairsherfeetsliponceortwice,whichshowsgreatdeterminationtogettowhereshewantstobe.Eventuallyshereachestheupstairsbedroom,andfromthenonsleepsonthebednext totheDears.Clark’sfinalanimationbeforemovingintootherareasofanimatedfilmproduction.©DisneyWalt Disney chose three of his Nine Old Men to become sequence directors for hisambitiousproductionofSleepingBeauty.TheywereEricLarson,WoolieReitherman,andLesClark.Asolderdirectorswereretiring, itwas timeto fill those topspotswithartistswhoknewanimationandDisney’sphilosophyabout filmmaking.Among the sequencesClarkdirectedwastheverycomplexopeningofthefilm.BigcrowdsmaketheirmovetowardKingStefan’scastletotakepartinPrincessAurora’sbirthdaycelebration.AccordingtosceneplannerRuthieThomson, those scenes were the most difficult to coordinate, partly because of so manydifferent cel levels. Maleficent’s powerful entrance is also a part of the sequence. AfterSleeping Beauty, Eric Larson went back to animation, Woolie Reitherman stayed on asdirectorandeventuallyproducerofDisneyfeaturefilms,andLesClarkwasputinchargeofdirectingspecialprojectsliketheeducationalfilmDonaldinMathmagicLand.Hislastprojectwas overseeing the 1974 production ofMan,Monsters andMysteries, an entertaining filmabouttheLochNessMonstermyth.LesClarkwastheonlyartistfromWalt’sfirstgenerationof animators who kept up with the changes and demands at the studio throughout thedecades.HeknewearlyonthatDisneywantedbetter-lookinganimation,oftenmorerealisticdraftsmanship,andnuancedperformances.Clarktookadvantageofallthein-houseartclassesonofferinordertobetterhimself.Eveninlateryearshewouldfinishhisworkatthestudiothendrive to an evening school for courses inportrait and landscapepainting.The level ofartistrykept risingatDisney, andLesClarkmadeeveryeffort tokeepupand improvehisskills.HeistheleastknownoftheNineOldMen,buthopefullyhisbodyofworkshownherewillrectifythis.FlowersandTrees1932WOMANTREECLEAN-UPANIMATIONSc.48Whatachallengethisassignmentmusthavebeen;creatingafemalepersonalityoutofatreewouldn’tbeaneasytask.ButClark,whohadearlierdevelopedsubtlefemininequalitiesforthe character ofMinnieMouse,was perfectly cast. By bending the tree trunk according tohumananatomysuchasthehip,knees,andneck,hesucceedsinachievingelegantposesthattheaudienceidentifiesasayoungwoman.TheCountryCousin1936ABNERMOUSECLEAN-UPANIMATIONSc.14Afterthemicecousinsarriveinfrontoftheoversizedhumanbuffet,citymouseMontynibblesonasmallpieceofcheeseinafinediningmanner.BycontrastcountrymouseAbnergrabsapiece of cheese bigger than his head, and shoves it into his mouth. As he chews, his fullhamster-likecheekssquashandstretchseverelyinademonstrationofhisenormousappetite.It is astounding to seehow farClarkgoeswith expressions andvolume shifts.By showingthese bad, yet funny table manners a clear difference is established between these twocharacters.©Disney©DisneyFantasia1940THESORCERER’SAPPRENTICEMICKEYMOUSECLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.7,Sc.11Scenes like this one prove that Les Clark was one of the best Mickey Mouse animators.Mickey’s forcefulactionsshowseriousdetermination,yet there is stillanelementofhumorpresent.Herepeatedlyrollsuphislongsleevesbecausetheygetinthewayofhisgesturing.His oversized outfit is a metaphor for someone who is in over his head. Clark paid closeattention to howMickey’s hands are drawn, since they are the primary force in the scene.Theyretaintheexpressivenessofhumanhands,evenwithonefingermissing.©Disney©Disney©DisneySymphonyHour1942MICKEYMOUSECLEAN-UPANIMATIONSc.6AnotherbeautifulpieceofanimationbyLesClarkfeaturingDisney’smosticoniccharacter,asheconductsanorchestra.His extravertedgesturesareperfectly timed to themusicandarereminiscentofhisperformanceinFantasia.At onepoint during the scene themusic quiets down, andMickey leansway forward inorder to get closer to the orchestra. From a physical point of view he should actually falldown, because these poses are completely off-balance. Yet this exaggerated stagingcommunicatesthatMickey’smovementsarenotlimitedbyrealism.Asacartooncharacterhecan lower himself down toward his musicians as no live actor could. If the animation isentertainingtheaudiencewillbelieveit.©DisneyPeterPan1953WENDYCLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.14,Sc.102SinceallofWendy’ssceneswerebasedonlive-actionreference,itwasuptotheanimatortofindtheessenceintheliveperformanceandturnitintographicmotion.Wendy alongwith her brothers and the Lost Boys celebrate the fact that CaptainHookadmittedtobeingacodfish:“Hurray…Hookisacodfish,acodfish,acodfish…”In this sceneClark is animating to the rhythmof the sung linesofdialogue.But there issomethingaboutWendy’sheadtiltsthatshowsheisreallyenjoyingPeterPan’svictoryoverCaptainHookinakindofimpishway.©Disney©DisneyWolfgangReithermanWhenWaltDisneydiedinDecemberof1966,theworldwonderedwhatmighthappentohisanimated film productions without Disney’s leadership. The animators and other keypersonnelwereconcernedaswell.BecauseofWalt’sunexpectedpassing,thecompanywasill-prepared for a traumatic situation like this one.Therewere those in topmanagementwhothought the animation department should be shut down, after all the studio by then hadamassed a large number of animated classics that could still generate income throughrereleases.Animator/directorWolfgangReithermanarguedstronglyforcontinuinganimation,TheJungleBookwashalf-finished,andanewprojectcalledTheAristocatshadbeenapprovedbyDisney tomove forward.FortunatelywhenTheJungleBookwas released inOctoberof1967,it turned out to be a tremendous success and re-established Disney animation as aunique and valuable form of entertainment, loved the world over. Under Reitherman’sleadership, the studio’s group of master animators would produce a few more films untilretirementage,butnotbeforetraininganumberofyoungartiststhatwouldhelpguaranteethe future of the art form.Woolie Reitherman, as his colleagues called him, hadmade theswitchfromanimatortoco-directoronthe1959filmSleepingBeauty.AtthetimeofWalt’sdeath,heservedassingledirectoronthestudio’sanimatedfeatures.Naturallyhisrelationshipwiththeotheranimatorschanged;formerlyhehadbeenaco-worker,nowhewastheirboss.But this new arrangement worked (for the most part), becauseWoolie always insisted onteamwork,hehadenormousrespectforthetalentinthedepartmentandkeyanimatorswereincludedinimportantdecisionsregardingstoryandcharacterdevelopment.Throughout his life, Reitherman had been an enthusiastic pilot, he loved the feeling offreedomandindependenceintheco*ckpit.Asayoungmanhewasstrong-willedwithazestforlifeandasenseofadventure.AttheadviceofanartteacherheappliedtoDisneyandgothiredin1934.Themanagement at that timemusthave sensedWoolie’s freewheeling spirit right away,becausehewassparedspendinganytimeinthein-betweeningdepartmentatall.Insteadhejumped into animation right away anddrew simple scenes on short films likeFunny LittleBunnies,Two-GunMickey,andTheBandConcert.Wooliestatedlaterthathewouldnothavesurvivedthetediousassistantprogramfornewcomerstothestudio.He was ready to take this new medium of animation straight on. Other short filmassignments followed,andwhenReithermananimateda fewoutstandingpersonalitysceneswith the character of Goofy forHawaiianHoliday, his colleagues took notice. Just aboutevery possible surfingmishap is shownhere,withGoofy facing the additional challenge oftryingtosurfawavethathasapersonalityanddoesn’tlikesurfers.Timingisall-importantinanimatedsituationslikethese.Pauseswithintheactiongivetheaudiencetimetotakeinagagandhavealaugh.Woolie’sworkonHawaiianHolidaymadehiscolleaguestakenotice.©DisneyButWoolie’sfirstassignmentonananimatedfeaturefilmwouldnotgetanylaughsfromtheaudience:theMagicMirrorinSnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarfsservedapurelydramaticpurpose. When being asked a question by the evil Queen, he answers her truthfully. TheMirrorisneitherfornoragainsttheQueen,hisresponsesaredeliveredinasternbutneutralmanner.After animating a hilarious situation involvingGoofy, this character’s handling needed acompletelydifferentapproach.ThetechnicalchallengeWooliefacedwastodrawthefaceinperfectsymmetry.Afterseveralfailedattempts,hecameupwiththeideatodrawonehalfoftheMirror’sface,thenfoldthepaperandtracetheotherhalf.Ittookalotofprecisiontogivetherightamountoflifetothisartdecoface.Toomuchsquashandstretchwouldhavegivenahumorous,cartoonyappearance,butnotenoughshape-changeintheeyesandmouth,andthescenes would have turned out lifeless. After all that careful work, Reitherman wasdisappointedtoseethatthefinalfilmfootageshowedhischaractermostlycoveredupbyfireandsmokeeffects.TomaketheMagicMirror’sfaceperfectlysymmetrical,Wooliedrewonehalfandthentracedtheother.©DisneyWoolie applied a real sense of perspective to Goofy’s animation. An arm motion gets close to camera and is drawnconsiderablylargertoachieveafeelingofdimensionanddepth.©DisneyBeforeworkbeganonDisney’ssecondanimatedfeature,Wooliehadagaintheopportunitytohonehisskillsasananimatorofcomedy.Inthe1939shortGoofyandWilburhisanimationis sogutsyand loose, it looks likeReitherman is shakingoffanyrestrictionshehad todealwith when animating the Magic Mirror. Goofy goes on a fishing expedition, and uses hisgrasshopperfriendWilburasbait.Atonepointhefindshimselfinastateofpanicwhenhisfriendgets swallowedbya fish.Theamazing looseness inGoofy’smovements ispartly theresultoftheanimator’suseofbaggyclothinginsecondaryaction.Sleeves,vest,andpantsallhanglimponthecharacter’sbody.Whenhemoves,thesematerialsdragandhelptheoverallflowoftheanimation.The same year saw the release of the shortDonald’s Cousin Gus. Woolie animated thecharacterGusGoose,whovisitsDonaldandbringsalongacolossalappetite.Thefilmopenswith the arrival of Gus at Donald’s home, and right away his screen presence is utterlycaptivating.Fromhisunconventional,bouncywalktothewayhecomestoastopinanoff-balancedpose,thischaracter’spantomimeperformanceisinventiveandentertaining.Woolieagaindrewcertainmovesusingexaggeratedperspective, asGusmakesa sweeping turn tofacetheentranceofDonald’shome.Firstoneofhisfeetgetsclosetocamera,followedbyhisarm holding a travel bag. Thiswhole rotation adds believability aswell as comedy to theperformance.CousinGuscomestolifethroughReitherman’suniqueideasforcomicalacting.©DisneyWoolieprovedthathehadbecomeananimatorwithgreatversatility,whenhebeganworkonMonstro, thewhale for the featurePinocchio.His talent for funnypersonalityanimationneeded to be put aside, this character was a true monster who would not only terrifyPinocchioandGeppettobutaudiencesaswell.Hewasalsotheclimaxofthefilm,andmuchexcitementandfearneededtobedevelopedinorder tocontrast theemotionsof thehappyendingthatfollowed.Monstropresentedmanydrawingandanimationchallenges.Howcanthiscreaturethathasthesquareshapeofanoversizedschoolbusbebroughttolife?Whatkindofamotionrangeshouldhehave?Wooliebrokeupthewhale’sbodyintothreemainvolumes:head,body,andtail.Duringdramaticmoves—particularlyturns—thosebodypartscouldbetwistedandoffset,resulting indynamicposesandmotion.Whendrawn from lowcameraangles,Monstrodidindeedcomeacrossasmonstrous.Thechoiceofperspectivemakesallthedifferenceinsuchasituation.Whenlookingupatacreature,itbecomesinstantlyimposingandmassivelooking.Instead,whenlookingdownontoit,thecreatureseemslessfrightening,becausetheviewerisplaced at a higher, safer level. While Monstro’s overall body shape looks fairly simple,Reithermanaddeddetailwhereverpossible.Thewhale’sfleshymouthwithitscountlessteethaswell as thedefinitionofhiswholeundersidehelped togive the illusionof scale.Stagingbecamecriticallyimportant.ReithermancapturestheenormousscaleofMonstro.©DisneyCertain scenes showed the entire body, while others were framed closer, so that othercharacterscouldfitintotheframe.Thepacingofthesequence’seditinghadtokeepbuildinguptothefinaltwoscenesinwhichMonstroleapsrightintocamerabeforecrashingintorockson theshoreline.Nootheraction/chasesequence inDisneyanimationcompares to thehighdramaofthisspectacleatsea.ScaleandsizeweremostdefinitelyamajorconsiderationinWoolie’snextassignmentforanimating the epic battle of a Tyrannosaurus Rex and a Stegosaur in Fantasia’s “Rite ofSpring” sequence. Stravinsky’smusic set the tone for this ferocious fight to the death. Theproblemwas,howdoyoubringtolifecreaturesthatareextinct?Whatkindofresearchwouldtellyouhowtheymighthavemoved?Theplacetostudyprehistoriccreatureslikethesewasthe LosAngelesNationalHistoryMuseum. Skeletons of dinosaurs gave Reitherman usefulinformation about how the ancient animals were built on the inside. How this knowledgewould translate into graphicmotion became the animator’s judgment call.Woolie realizedthataT-Rexcouldnotpossiblyhavefoughtusinghissmallarms,insteadhisenormousteethwere his main weapon. During a walk, the gigantic legs—carrying all that weight—wouldmakethegroundshudderoncontact.TheStegosaurbycontrasthadshortlegsandcouldonlytakesmallsteps,ashetriedtobackawayfromtheaggressor.Ittooktremendousanalysistoachievenatural-lookingmovementsforthismonumentalfight.Ontopofthat,theanimationneededtobeinsyncwiththeintensemusic.Onsceneslikethese,Woolieusuallystartedbyputtingintuitivescribblesonpaperthatshowedinitialcompositionsandforces.Hewouldthenrework and refine those sketches several times over, until he saw believable action thatrepresentedwhathewasaimingfor.FellowanimatorOllieJohnstononcestatedthatWooliesent out more tests to be photographed for a given scene than anybody else. Just like asculptor,hefeltthecharacter’srawformsfirst,beforeanydetailswereadded.FACINGPAGEByblockinginthedinosaurs’anatomy,Wooliegainedcontrolovertheircolossalbodymassesandperspective.©DisneyItisastonishingtowitnessReitherman’sabilitytoswitchfromverydramaticanimationlikethe“RiteofSpring”tohilariouscharacteractinglikeTheReluctantDragon.Heanimatedthedragon’sopeningscenesashemeets theboyfromthevillage.Hisperformance isover-the-top, flamboyant, and very entertaining. We know right away that this dragon is not thefighting type, he prefers writing poetry. What is so surprising is that Woolie’s superbanimation fits in seamlessly with Ward Kimball’s wacky concept for the character. Twoanimatorswithdifferent backgrounds and sensibilities come together and create one of thefunniestDisneycharacters.Reithermanalsoanimatedonanothersectionofthefilm,featuringGoofyinHowtoRideaHorse.Thiswasnaturalcastingbecauseofhisearlierexperienceswiththecharacter.Woolie’stalentsrangefromrealisticdramatooutrageouscomedy.©DisneyTherewasonetypeofpersonalityWooliehadnottriedtoanimateyet.Sweetsympatheticcharacters were usually handed to animators like Ollie Johnston, Frank Thomas, or FredMoore.Butforsomereason, importantintroductoryscenesofTimothyMouseinthefilmDumbowereassignedtoWoolie.Afterwatchingthelittlepachydermbeingrejectedbyothercircuselephants,themousedecidestoinvestigatethesituationandtriestobefriendDumbo,whoishidinginahaystack.WefindoutthatTimothyisquitethepsychiatrist,becauseafterashorttalk,duringwhichheintroduceshimselfasafriend,theelephantcomesoutofhidingtomeetthe friendlyrodent.Timothy isananthropomorphicmouse,hewearsclothes,walkson twolegs, and gestures like a human.What is interesting to see is that hemaintainsmouse-likequalities.Woolie’sanimationshowsquickmovesandappealingposesthatcommunicatewhatsortofcharacterheis:abuddy,whoisthereforyou.Hiswalkneededtobeestablishedinthisearly sectionof the film.AtonepointTimothy turnsaway fromDumbo inorder to fakeamomentarydisinterestintheelephant’sproblem.Themovementofhislittlelegshavejusttherightamountofrotationsothatanaudiencebelieves,ifamousecouldwalkontwolegs,thisiswhatitwouldlooklike.Amousethatwalkslikeahumanlookinglikeamouse.©DisneyThechasesequenceinTheLegendofSleepyHollowhaddramaticaction,interspersedwithpausesfortheaudiencetocatchtheirbreath.©DisneyAfter Dumbo was finished, Disney was no longer able to continue feature-lengthproductions.PinocchioandFantasiahadnotgeneratedprofitsduring theiroriginal releases,whileoverseasmarketswerecutoffbecauseofthewar.Thestudiomanagedtostayafloatbyturningoutpropagandaandothershortfilms.WooliecontributedbeautifulanimationtofilmslikeElGauchoGoofy,HowtoSwimandHowtoFish.But for thenext fewyearshe left thestudio to fly for theUnitedStatesAirForce.Wooliewouldnot return toDisneyuntilApril1947.ThestudiohadbegunworkontwofeaturettefilmsTheWind in theWillowsandTheLegendofSleepyHollow.The latter included a dramatic chase sequence that involved the frightening HeadlessHorsemaninpursuitofthemaincharacterIchabodCrane.Wooliewasbackinhiselementasananimatorofexcitingactionscenes.OnHalloweennight,Ichabodrideshomeafterattendingaparty.Thesoundsoftheforestbecomemoreandmoredauntingwhen,outofnowhere,theHeadlessHorsemanappearswithonlyonething inmind, tocutoff Ichabod’sheadwithhissword.Thereareoccasionalcomedicmomentsduringthesequence(Ichabod’shorseisclumsyandasfrightenedashisrider),butforthemostpartthischaseisexhilaratingandrelentless.Woolie stronglybelieved inpacinganaction sequencea certainway.He stated thatduringfast-pacedactionscenes thereneeds tobepauseswhere thingsslowdown.Thiswouldgiveviewers the chance to catch theirbreathbefore tension rises againand speed is acceleratedagain. TheHeadlessHorseman’s steed takes a big leap into the air,which slows down therunningpattern.Horseandriderthenlanddownhillandpickupthepursuit.AnotherpauseintheactionoccurswhenIchabodhangsontotheneckofhisgallopinghorse.Heissmilingandpettingthehorse’shead,becausehebelievesthedangerhaspassed.Momentslikethesehelptogivetexturetoavolatilesequence.Exciting material kept coming Woolie’s way. For the film Cinderella he animated theclimacticsceneswiththemiceGusandJaq,astheytrytodeliverakeytoCinderella,whohasbeenlockedupinherroom.Thetaskseemsoverwhelmingbecausetheyneedtopullthekeyupanextremelyhighstaircase.Tensionisincreasedbythecat,Lucifer,whointerfereswiththemissionofthebravemice.Atanygivenmomentduringthesequencethechanceofmakingitallthewaytothetopofthetowerseemsimpossible.Thefilmmakerscutbackandforthtoadifferentsituationdownstairs,wheretheGrandDukeisvisitingwiththestepsistersandLadyTremaine,whoisunawareofthemissingkey.Editing,pacing,andafeelingofanxietymakethisoneofthemostsuspensefulsequenceseverputonfilm.Woolieemphasizestheweightofthelargekey,analmostunmanageableobstacle.©DisneyLessdramaticbutmoresurrealwasReitherman’sassignmentforAliceinWonderland.HeanimatedthesequencewheretheWhiteRabbitunsuccessfullytriestopreventhishousefrombeingdestroyedbyAlice.Thegirlhasmagicallygrowntothesizeofa*giantafterenteringthecottage.Nowherhugearmsand legs squeeze throughdoorsandwindows, threatening thestructure’s foundation. The bizarre storytelling doesn’t prove very captivating, so Wooliefocusedonestablishingcontrastsbetweentheinvolvedcharacters.Aliceonlywantstoregainheractualsize,whilethenervouslizardtriestofollowordersfromthebossydodo,whotellshimtogodownthechimneytogetridofthehumanmonster.Itishardtogettoknowthosetwo characters since their appearance in the film is very brief. But the White Rabbit isentertainingand shows consistency inhis personality.During all the commotionaroundhishouse,hekeepspointingathiswatch,afraidofbeingtoolate.Weneverfindoutwhatfor.TheWhiteRabbitisinconstantfearofbeinglate.©DisneyWoolie foundmuchmore satisfaction animating scenes with Captain Hook for the nextfilm,PeterPan.His colleague FrankThomas supervised the animation of the character, butwas unable to draw every single scenewith him. It was decided that Reitherman had theperfectexperiencetohandleanactionsequencethatincludedtheencounterbetweenCaptainHook and the Crocodile. Applying broad action combined with brilliant comedy, Woolieturned this sequence into the most thrilling section of the film. Nothing seemed to be offlimits.TheCrocodileswallowstheCaptainwhole,beforehere-emergesintact.Duringatensemoment,Hooktriestopreventbeingeatenbystandingattheedgeofthecreature’smouth,holdingitopenwithallhismight.Thosescenesraisedafeweyebrowsatthestudio;afterall,suchcartoonysituationshadpreviouslybeenreservedforacharacterlikeGoofy.Wooliedidnotcare;hehadtoomuchfunmakingtheimpossiblecomeoffasbelievable.Audiencesturnedout to be on his side; they bought the bizarre animation, because itwas entertaining.AndwhatkeptitfromlookinglikeaGoofyshortwasthefactthatWooliealwaysdrewHookwithaccurate human anatomy. This broad sequence actually added to the range of Hook’spersonality. He is definitely a menace to Peter Pan, but in this instance he almost getsconsumedbyanoversizedcrocodile.Evenvillainsliveinfear.Reithermansaid:“Nobodyisgoingtoworryaboutagag’slogic,ifit’sfunny.”©DisneyBroad action, but in a solelydramaticwaywas required for twomajor sequences in themovieLadyandtheTramp.Woolie’sanimationbroughtthrillingexcitementtobothsectionsof the film.AfterLadyrunsawayfromAuntSarah, she isbeingchasedbyapackofstreetdogs.Whentheycornerher,Trampcomestotherescueandfightsthemoff.Thefactthatheisoutnumberedmakes foran intense situation.Before the fightbegins,Trampstares thedogsdown, as he growls in a frozen position. The actual combat doesn’t last very long and ispartially staged as shadows. A few fierce close ups of dogs biting add to the feeling ofheightenedemotion.Afterthedogsflee,Tramp,outofbreath,turnshisattentiontoLadywhohadbeenhidingbehindabarrel.Duringthisfightsequence,realisticdrawingwasrequiredtomaketheactionbelievable.©DisneyRealdramaasTrampfightstherat.©DisneyWoolie’sotheractionsequencetakesplaceat theendof thefilm,whenTrampenters thehouse to confront a rat that has approached the baby’s cradle. Woolie timed this fight asdramaticallyashecould.Ratanddogfaceeachother,movingeversoslightly,theninaflashtheirmovements become fast and jerky… and suddenly they freeze again. Tramp ends theconfrontation with one quick bite. By nowWoolie had become a truemaster at dramaticaction,arolethatwouldcontinueintothenextfilm.Asmentioned,ReithermanbecameasequencedirectoronSleepingBeauty.Hisdaysasananimatorwereover.NowWooliewouldhavegreatercontrolovercertainsectionsofthefilmby working closely with story people and layout artists to get the maximum out of asequence. One of them dealt with the epic confrontation between Prince Phillip and theDragon.Hesupervisedalloftheanimationthatwasdoneforthisdramaticencounter.“Nowshallyoudealwithme,myprince,andallthepowersofhell”areMaleficent’sfinalwordsasshetransformsherselfintoaterrifyingdragon.ItwasimportantforWooliethattheaudiencebelievedthebeastisgoingtokilltheprince.Afterafewfire-breathingthreats,thepursuitbeginsandsteadilyintensifies.Phillipisfightingashebacksawaythroughthorns,upahill,untilthereisnowheretogo.Justwhenitlooksliketheendfortheprince,hethrowshisswordintothedragon’sheart.FireeffectsanimationandtheintensemusicalscorebasedonTchaikovskyhelp to keep the audienceon the edgeof their seats throughout the sequence.Unfortunatelythefilmlostmoneyinitsinitialrelease,itseemsaudiencescouldnotwarmuptoafilmthisstylized.EricCleworthanimatedmanyscenesforthefightunderWoolie’sdirection.©DisneyThe following film,One Hundred and One Dalmatians (1961) represented a significantchange in Disney storytelling. After the monumental production of the fairy tale SleepingBeauty,Dalmatianswas set in contemporaryLondon.Nopixie dust ormagic anywhere insight, this story was about the kidnapping of puppies. Reitherman was one of three codirectors,who translatedBillPeet’s storyboard into the firstDisney filmof themodernera.Gonewerethelush,realisticallypaintedbackgrounds,makingroomforafresh,cutting-edgevisual style. One of the sequencesWoolie directedwas the utterly charming twilight bark.Desperatetoletthewordoutabouttheirpuppies’disappearance,PongoandPerditausethiscaninegossip line to reachotherdogs inacall forhelp.OneHundredandOneDalmatianswas made for a fraction of Sleeping Beauty’s cost, the film was enormously successfulworldwide,andprovedthatDisneyanimatedfilmscouldbeprofitableagain.Starting with The Sword in the Stone, Woolie served as solo director. Walt Disney hadgottentoapointwherehetrustedWoolie’sjudgmentandexperience.SinceWalthadgotteninvolvedwithmany other types of entertainment (theme parks, TV) that tookmuch of histime,itwasimportanttohimthatanartistwithnaturalleadershipskillstookonhisanimatedproductions.TheSwordintheStoneprovedfairlyunsuccessfulwithcriticsaswellasaudiences,butTheJungleBookbrokestudioboxofficerecords.ThetoneofthestoriesbeingtoldinDisneyfilmsbythenwasmuchmilderthaninWalt’searlierachievements.Wooliewantedtomakefilmsfor families, and he became increasingly concerned about scaring children with terrifyingvillains.Hestatedaroundthattime:“Ifwelosethekids,we’velosteverything.”Perhapsraisinghisownchildrenmadehimchangehisphilosophyforstorytelling.Whatkindofanimatedfilmswouldhewanthisthreesonstosee?FilmsthatfollowedlikeTheAristocats,RobinHood,andThe Rescuers all had comedic villains and rich character relationships. All of them weresuccessfulandlaidthefoundationforanewgenerationofanimationartiststoputtheirmarkontheart form.WoolieReithermanwasnotonlyoneof theworld’s topanimators,healsomadesurethatDisneyanimationwouldcontinueonintothenewcentury.Donald’sCousinGus1939GUSCLEAN-UPANIMATIONOVERROUGHANIMATIONSc.4OneofDisney’sgreatestcharacters inshortfilmsisGus,acousinofDonald,whoshowsupoutof thebluewithahugeappetite.Wooliesetsupthisodd,but fun-lovingcharacterrightfromthestartashearrivesinfrontofDonald’shouse.Themailboxconfirmsthatheisintherightplace,andit’stimetoapproachthefrontdoorbehindhim.Gusanticipateshislittlestrollbyliftingonefootwayuphighbeforeswingingittowardthecamera,thenawayfromit.Ashisupperbody turns around, thehandholdinghis travel bagdoes the same foreshorteningmotion.Woolie’sanimationdrawingsmovewithinreal space.Thestronguseofsquashandstretchduringhiswalkawayfromtheviewerturnsthissceneintoacomicalmasterpiece.©Disney©DisneyPinocchio1940MONSTROCLEAN-UPOVERROUGHANIMATIONSeq.10.9,Sc.8Monstro isacceleratinghispursuitof the little raftholdingPinocchio,Geppetto,Figaro,andCleo.Hemakesahugeturnupwardtowardthesurfacebyalmostbrushingthecamera.Oneaftertheother,eachmainbodypartapproachestheviewer,firsttheheadwithitsopenmouth,followedbythemiddleframeandthetail.Woolieeffectivelyanimatedthismovefromaloweye-level,whichincreasesthedramaandemotionofthescene.©DisneyFantasia1940“RITEOFSPRING”TYRANNOSAURUSREXCLEAN-UPOVERROUGHANIMATIONSeq.8.6,Sc.43Duringthe“RiteofSpring”section,ahorrificTyrannosaurusRexisabouttolurchtowardaStegosaur.Woolie has the prehistoricmonster lean back in anticipation of his leap into thecamera. It is important to give a heavy creature like this one plenty of time to changedirections,otherwisetheanimationwouldlackweight.InthiscasetheT-Rexhoversabouttenframes at his highpoint, before rapidly approaching the camera.There is nobetterway tofrightenanaudiencethantomakeitfeelthatagiantbeastiscomingdownonthem.©DisneySaludosAmigos1943ELGAUCHOGOOFYGOOFYANDHORSECLEAN-UPOVERROUGHANIMATIONSc.37In full gaucho outfit, Goofy is riding his horse in pursuit of an ostrich.He seems to be anexperthunter;withinsecondshecatchesthebird.Whenthefilmrewindstothestartof thehunt,thesceneisshownagain,butinextremeslowmotion.AtthisslowspeedtheaudienceissupposedtobecomeawareofGoofy’sprofessionalandimpressivetechnique.WhatwewatchinsteadisaseriesofhilariousmishapsasGoofybouncesupanddownthehorseincartoonyfashionbeforemakingapainfullandingonhisownspurs.Woolieexaggeratedeverypieceofactionasmuchashecould,andappliedsquashandstretchmoreseverely thanhenormallywould, because he knew that it would look funny. These highly detailed key drawingsrequired a humongous amount of in-betweens in order to present the action this slowly.Wooliemusthaveworkedwiththestudio’smostpatientassistant.©Disney©DisneyTheAdventuresofIchabodandMr.Toad1949ICHABODANDKATRINACLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.7,Sc.21IchabodisdoinghisbesttoimpressKatrinaVanTasselattheparty.Woolie’sfunnyanimationofthecoupleshowsthemholdingrelativelystill,whileIchabod’sganglylegskeepkickingupoutofnowhere.Hiscrazyfootworkbecomesthecenterofcomedyforthescene.Itisn’tuntilmomentslaterthatthecharacterschangeintoamoreconventionaldancingpattern.AsgoodasWooliewashandlingdramaticmaterial,hiscomedyscenesrankamongthebesteverdoneatthestudio.©Disney©DisneyEricLarson“WaltDisneynevertalkeddowntoanaudience,insteadhealwaystriedtobringyouuptohis level.” Thosewords by animatorEric Larsonwere directed at youngnewcomers to thestudio during the early 1980s, people like Mark Henn and Ruben Aquino, as well as thisauthor.ErictriedtomakeitcleartousthattopqualityworkwaskeytoanyDisneyanimatedproduction.Hetalkedabouthavinghighstandardsinyourworkasagoodruletolivebyandagoodwaytoexpressyourselfasananimator.InsomanywaysEricwasmuchmorethanananimation teacher; he represented the Disney philosophy of bringing things to life in abelievable,genuineway.Therewerecertainlyusefultoolsofthetradethatwereabigpartofhiscurriculum,butnomatterhowfrustratedweoccasionallybecamewithourearlyattemptsto animate—poor timing and the lack ofweight showed our inexperience—a talkwithEricalwaysleftuswithafeelingthatthisisthegreatestartformintheworld.Weallknewwhataprivilege it was to be a part of a group of artists that was encouraged to continue thetraditionsofDisneyanimationundertheguidanceofoneofthemedium’smasters.ThisquotefromoneofEric’slecturesexemplifieshisaffectionforanimatedfilmmaking:Animation is a formof communication, and thereforewhenyou’re animatingyou aremakingastatement:astatementaboutthecharacter,thestory,thefeelingsandemotions,actions, personalities, archetypes, etc. If youwant the audience to get involved in thestory,connectwiththecharacter,andfeeltheemotionsneededtosympathizeandrelatetothatcharacteryoumustmakeapositivestatement.Tomakeapositivestatementyouhavetoknowyourcharactersandtheirpersonality,haveadevotiontoyourcraft,knowhow to use your art to express the statement you want to make, apply feelings andemotionsthatarestrongandrealtoafantasystory,andmostofallhavesincerity.Ifyoudon’thavefeelingsandemotionsforyourcharacter,howcanitevenbepossiblefortheaudienceto?YoungEricLarsonoriginallypursuedwritingwiththehopesofbecomingajournalist.Buthealso enjoyeddrawing, andwhen in the early 1930swordgot around thatWaltDisneywashiringartistsEricappliedandwashiredasan in-betweener.Hedidassistantworkonshortfilms likeTwo-GunMickey,Mickey’s Service Station, and the groundbreakingThe TortoiseandtheHare,whichfeaturedinnovativeactionscenesbyanimatorHamLuske.AtonepointtheHareplaystenniswithhimself,speedingbackandforthonthetenniscourt.Eric Larsonwas verymuch impressed by the wayHam Luske timed his actions. For very fastmotions speed lines weredrawntosimulateamotionblur. Itmighthavebeenslightlyoverdone,but thisexperimentsucceeded increating fastbutsmooth-lookinganimation.©DisneyLuskehadtoworkhardtomakehisdrawingslookgood,andtomakethemperforminawaythat feltbelievableandgenuinetohim.Ericwasnotanaturaldraughtsmaneitherandoften struggled to catchupwith animators likeMiltKahl orMarcDavis,whoseworkwasalwaysbeautifullydrawnandshoweda flair forstrongdesign.But toEric thestrugglewasworththeefforttogetaperformanceonthescreen.Anditwascertainlynotbeneathhimtoasksuperiordraftsmenatthestudioforhelpinordertomakehissceneslookbetter.ThiskindofteamworkwasverymuchencouragedbyWaltDisneyhimself,whoknewthathisartistscouldlearnfromeachother,particularlywhenthestudiostartedworkontheirfirstfeature-lengthproductionSnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarfs.ItwasatthattimethatEricgothisbigbreak.AtthesuggestionofHamLuske,Ericwaspromotedtofull-fledgedanimator.HejoinedMilt Kahl in animating large groups of forest animalswho interactedwith SnowWhite inmanyscenes.Thiswasahugelylabor-intensiveassignment.Tosynchronizethemovementsofseveral deer, chipmunks, and bunnies has more to do with choreographing a ballet thananimatingyouraveragescene.RealanimalmotionneededtobestudiedsothattheanimationwouldlooknaturalenoughnexttotherealisticcharacterofSnowWhite.Ericwashappywithmostof theresults;however,he felt that thedeer—with their flour-sackbodies—couldhavebenefittedfromadoseofstronganatomy.Synchronizingsomanywoodlandcreatureswasmorelikechoreographingaballetthananimatingascene.©DisneyRoosterandheninthemiddleofaromanticduet.©DisneyBefore getting involved inDisney’s second animated feature, Eric continuedworking oncharming,cartoonyanimalcharactersforshortfilmslikeFarmyardSymphonyandTheUglyDuckling.TheDisneystyleofthelate1930sand1940shadasoft,cuddlyquality,andEricfeltverycomfortablewiththisrelativelysimpleapproachtodrawingandconstructinganimatedcharacters.TheUglyDucklingisborn.©DisneyWhile these farmanimalsweredesigned inasimplewayto tellashortstory,Eric’snextcharacterneededtohaveamuchmoredevelopedpersonality,afterallhebecameoneofthemaincharactersinthefilmPinocchio.Figaro’searlydesignswereacaricatureofanadultcat,but Ericmuch preferred to portray thismischievous, but lovable character as a kitten. Hisfelinemovesfeelsobelievablebecausetheyarebasedonrealcatmotionandthencaricaturedin themost lovingway. Figaro’s human attributes and expressions have roots in a formerLarsonfamilymember,Eric’sfour-year-oldnephew.Kidsthatageshowtypicalcharacteristicsofmisbehaviorandmoodswingsbutalsoaffectionfortheirparents,andFigaro’spersonalityfitsalloftheseattributes.Thenthereisaclassicbrother–sisterrelationshipbetweenhimandthe goldfish, Cleo. That kind of character pairing offers rich and contrasting situations thathelptobringtheseyoungsterstolife.Ericproducedsomebeautifulpantomimeanimationinan early section of the film. Geppetto and Figaro have just settled for the night into theirrespectivebeds,when theoldwoodcarverdecides tomakeawish.GeppettoasksFigaro toopenthewindowsohecanaskthewishingstarforPinocchiotobecomearealboy.Ericsawgreatpotential in thewayFigarocouldreact in thissituation.Hefirst looksuptoGeppettowithanupset“Nowwhat?”expression,thentosseshisblanketwitheachfootatatimebeforetumblingoutofbedinthedirectionofthewindow.HehopsontoGeppetto’sbedandcrossesoverasoftbedcover.Figaro’sbodyreactsbeautifullytoeachsurfacehecomesincontactwith.Strongsquashdrawingisusedwhenhefirsttumblesoutofhisbedandhitsthehardwoodenfloor. By contrast his legs sink deeply into Geppetto’s bedcover, which communicates theweightofthecataswellashowcushytheblanketis.Allthisaddsatonofcharmtothislittlecharacter,who*ricobviouslyadoredanimating.FigarocrossingasoftbedcoverinthefilmPinocchio.©DisneyAverydifferenttypeofanimationwasrequiredforEric’sotherassignmentonPinocchio.WaltaskedhimtotakeoverthemarionettesthatdancedonStromboli’sstageandinteractedwith Pinocchio. These characterswere not supposed to look alive, since their actionsweremanipulatedbyoffstagehumans.Ericknewthat inordertomaketheaudiencebelievethatthesepuppetsweremadeoutofwood,adifferentapproachto theiranimationwasneeded.Absolutelynosquashandstretchwasappliedwhentheirbodiesh*tthefloorormadecontactwitheachother.Woodisaveryhardmaterial,anddistortingtheirvolumeswouldhavemadethem look like living characters. Eric synchronized the animation perfectly to the musicalbeatsof thesong“I’veGotNoStrings,”and theresult isanutterlyconvincingperformancewithmarionettes.Auniqueapproachwasrequiredtomakeaudiencesbelievethemarionettesweremadeoutofwood.©DisneyFigaro’sactionsshowedrealfelinemotionwhilethestagepuppetsactedwithnoinnerlivesatall.EricLarson’snextassignmentforDisney’sFantasiacalledforafantasticalandimaginedtype of movement, since the characters were centaurs. They appeared in theBeethoven/“Pastoral” sequence. This classic combination of horse and man presented achallengeintermsofbodyrhythm.Howwouldthehumanupperbodyreacttothemotionsofthe lowerhorseanatomyandviceversa?AnimatorFredMoorehaddesigned these fantasycreatures in a simple, roundish, and cartoony way. So drawing them didn’t present majordifficulties,butmakingthemmoveturnedouttobetherealchallenge.Thatimportantunifiedbodyrhythmwasneverestablishedinmotion,andtheendresultslookstiff.Years later Eric talked to us students about the fact that he still felt embarrassed by hisanimationofthosecentaurs.“ThegirlslookOKforthemostpart,”hesaid,“butthemennevercometolifeproperly.”EricLarsonquestionedthequalityofthecentaurs’designaswellashisanimation.©DisneyErichadmoresuccesswiththeflyinghorsesinthe“Pastoral”sectionofFantasia.©DisneyEric redeemedhimself,however,whenhealsoanimatedseveral sceneswithmembersofthe Pegasus family in the samePastoral section of Fantasia. The gracefulmovements of aflyinghorseneededtobeinventedaswell,butEricfoundthiscombinationofbirdandhorseamuchmorepleasantassignment thanthecentaurs.There isgreatelegance in thewaythesehugecreatures land softly in thewaterbefore theirwingsare turnedbackward to simulatefloatingswans.Afteranimatingmythologicalflyinganimals,Ericturnedtoa“real”birdforthefilmBambi.HedevelopedanddrewFriendOwl,acharacterhemuchidentifiedwith.Intentionalornot,Eric’sowngentlepersonalitygreatlyinfluencedthisowl’scharacter,whooftenshowsfatherlyaffectiontowardstheotherforestanimals.Thatis,untilspringseasonarrivesandthecalmoftheforestisinterruptedbynoisybirdsandother“twitterpated”animals.Hisattempttoquieteverybody downwith a loudwarning is unsuccessful, and he flies off in search of amorepeacefulpartofthewoods.Whatfollowsisanunexpected,butveryentertainingperformancethatmocksthebirds’courtshipbehavior:“Tweet,tweet!PaininthepinfeathersIcallit.”WefindoutthatFriendOwlhasasomewhatzanysenseofhumor.Larson’sowngentlecharacterandsenseofhumorarereflectedinthepersonalityofFriendOwl.©DisneyThe character was voiced by actor Bill Wright who sounds like everybody’s favoritegrandfather.Andthatisexactlywho*ricLarsonbecameinhislateryears,akindandpatientmentorwithanedgysenseofhumor.After Bambi and for the rest of the 1940s The Walt Disney Studios focused on theproductionofshortfilms.EricanimatedonseveralfilmswithGoofysuchasTigerTroubleandAfricanDiary.ThestaroftheshortTheFlyingGauchitowasBurrito,adonkeywithwings,andEricagainended up drawing a Pegasus-like creature. Frank Thomas supervised the character’sanimation, andEricwas a natural choice to help out because of his experiencewith flyinghorsesforFantasia.Ericresearchedarangeoffacialexpressionsaswellassimplifiedhorseandpartialbirdanatomy.©DisneyBynowErichadbecomesomewhatofanexpertinanimatingbirds.WhenworkbeganontheshortfilmPeterandtheWolf,hewascastonPeter’seccentricl*ttlebirdfriendSasha.Thischaracter’semotionswerealwaysstrongandextreme.WhenhefirstseesPeter,Sashaisveryhappy,andwhenheencounterstheWolf,heisveryfrightened.Hismovementsareextremelyfastandsnappy.Ericwouldholdaposeforabouttenframes,justenoughtoregister,beforequickly moving on to another pose. This kind of timing gave Sasha a nervous, energeticquality.Healsocomesacrossasenthusiasticandadventure-loving.Afterall,hisfriendPetersurelywon’tbeabletotrackdowntheWolfbyhimself.Erictoldhisstudentslaterthatatleasteightframesoffilmareneededforanyposetoreadonthescreen.Anythinglessthanthatwouldmaketheposedisappearinaction.Asmallcharacterwithbigemotions.©DisneySnappytimingwasagainneededforthemaincharactersinthefilmSongoftheSouth.Ericsawa lot of potential indeveloping richpersonalities basedon thevoice recordings,whichsuggested a strong contrast between the slow bear, the fast fox, and the smart rabbit. Ericanimated a scene inwhichBrerRabbit is caught in the fox’s trap. This is a very awkwardposition, and any acting is restricted to head turns and small hand gestures. But Eric stillmanagedtoportraytherabbitwiththeconfidencethathecouldtalkBrerBear intofreeinghim.BrerHabbitdisplayingunlimitedconfidencedespitelimitedmovement.©DisneyClips from this film were often shown during Eric’s classes on action analysis. Theanimationisoftenataveryfastpace,butallposesandexpressionsreadclearly.Ittaughtusstudentsjusthowfaryoucantakepersonalityanimationintermsofspeedandenergy.JustlikeonSongoftheSouth,EricLarsonwasoneofafewsupervisinganimatorsonthe1948filmMelodyTime,which includedseveral short films fora feature-lengthpresentation.Eric did significant animation work on a couple of titles. One of them, Once Upon aWintertime, isasimplelovestory,featuringJoeandJenny,astheyskateontheicewithinaMaryBlair-inspiredenvironment.Stylizeddesignsallowedforsmooth,fluidanimation.©DisneyThetwoloversgetintoanargumentandalmostseparatebeforeencounteringthedangerofbreakingice.Butallendswell.Theircharacterdesignissimpleandgraphicallyreminiscentofthe fluid, rhythmic lines of caricaturist Al Hirschfeld. The animation reflects those designchoices. Joe and Jenny move elegantly on the ice like professional skaters. Eric relishedworkingonthem,hefoundthattheirsimplelinesandshapeswereeasytodraw,whichfreedhimup to focuson theanimation.Animatorswhohavedifficultiesdrawing theircharacterswilloftenproducestiffanimation,becauseofthestruggletheygothroughinputtingagoodposeorexpressiononpaper.MelodyTime includedanother short film featuringbeautifulEricLarsonanimation.LittleToot is the name of a little tugboatwith amischievous, childlike personality. Eric said thatwhenanimatinghethinksaboutthosehumanqualitiesfirst,thefactthatthischaracterisaninanimateobjectisofasecondarynature.Thestoryisagainverysimple:Becauseofhis“showoff”behaviorLittleTootgets intotroubleandiseventuallybanishedouttotheopensea.Astormrollsin,causingtroubleforavastlinernearby.AfterLittleTootpullsthehugeshiptosafetyheishailedahero.Ericneededtobringthecharacter’semotionsacrosswithouttheuseofarmsandlegs.Themainshapeoftheboatfunctionsasatorso,andthecabinisdrawnasahumanhead.YetEricwasabletoportraychildlikeattitudesbyhavingthelittleboathoppingon the water, leaving splashes behind. Little Toot would wiggle his rear before movingforward at great speed.Moves like these are convincing because they are reminiscent of ahappy kid or of a dog anticipating a jump. This was part of Eric’s philosophy; personalityanimationneedstohaverootsintheartist’sobservationofreal-lifesituations.LittleTootmanagestodemonstratechildlikequalities,despitehavingnoarmsorlegs.©DisneyEricLarsonhad to shift gears betweena fantasy character likeLittleToot anda realistichuman like the title character inCinderella. Studying live-action footage carefullywas thebasis for subtle, believable performances. Eric shared the duty of supervising the titlecharacter’s animation with colleague Marc Davis. They both drew key personality scenesthroughoutthefilm,butitwasEricwhowasresponsibleforintroducingCinderelladuringtheopening scenes. A few of her animal friends, including birds and mice, wake her up, andbecausesheinteractswiththeminaplayful,teasingway,Cinderellaisinstantlylikeable.Shesings“ADreamIsaWishYourHeartMakes,”whichsignalsthatshehasnotgivenuphope,even though her life has been reduced to the role of a kitchenmaid.During the song sheundoesherpigtailsinafeminineandnaturalgesture.Cinderellaisinstantlylikeableintheopeningscene.©DisneyAnimatinghairconvincinglyisnotaneasythingtodo.Unlikeincomputeranimation,onlya fewpencil linesdefine its shapeandmovement.Ericenhanced themotionofCinderella’shairbymakingitswingfurther,particularlyduringquickheadturns.Thisoverlappingactioncomplementsthecharacter’sprincipalmovementsinanaturalway.The filmmade afterCinderella presented a much younger heroine. But Alice from themovieAlice inWonderlandwasalsodesigned ina realisticway, andanimatorsbased theirwork on live-action reference. Eric was again asked to animate the title character’sintroductoryscenes.Alicesitsonalowbranchofatreelisteningtohersister,whor*adsfromahistorybook.WeunderstandinstantlyhowboredAlicefeelsbecauseshedoesn’tpaymuchattention.Insteadsheplayswithafloralwreath,placingitontheheadofhercatDinah.ThesescenesarecarefullydrawnandhelpestablishAliceasarealgirl,wholivesinherowncolorfulworld. From a technical point of view, Alice’s wide dress with its many folds presentedsomethingofananimationchallenge.Everymoveshemadeneededtobecomplementedbytherightkindoffoldaction.Ifnotanimatedcorrectly,herdresswouldlooktoolightortooheavy.ButbecauseErichadearlierhandledsceneswithCinderellaandthePrincedancing,healreadyhadacertainamountofexperiencemovingfoldsonthefabricofadress.TheanimationforAlicewasbasedonlive-actionreference.©DisneyThetrendtoanimatecharacters inopeningsequencescontinuedforEric in thefilmPeterPan.HedrewsceneswithPeterwhenwefirstseehimatnightontherooftopoftheDarlinghouse.Kept in silhouette,his introduction isveryeffective, andEricmadehimmove likeadancerhere.Whenaposeisheld,itreadsclearly.WhenPeterisinmotion,ithasaveryfluideffect.PeterPanpromisestheDarlingchildrenaflighttoNeverLand.©DisneyMilt Kahl handled the following scenes inside the nursery. Eric takes over when PeterteachesWendy,John,andMichaelhowtofly.Thetechnicallycomplexanimationrequiredforthe flight over London and on to Never Land is Eric’s work as well. The children fly inperspectiveintocameraandawayfromitwhileinvolvedmultiplanecameramovesenhancetheirflightpath.Eric confessed later that thiswas hardwork, but hewas proud of the sequence becausewatchingitgaveyouathrill.MiltKahlhelpedErictokeepPeterPanonmodelbyprovidingaccuratekeydrawingsforEric’s scenes.WhenMilt years laterwas asked by a reporter to comment on the film thatfollowed,LadyandtheTramp,hesaid: “Well, thebest thing in it isEric’sdogPeg”—ahighcompliment from the studio’s top draftsman. Eric himself always blushed a little when herelatedthefactthathebasedPeg’sprovocativemovesaftersingerPeggyLee,whovoicedthecharacter. The film featuresmany great dog personalities, but Peg’s performance is simplyoutstanding.Hercharacter,withthepastofa“worldly”showgirl,wasanoveltyinaDisneyfilm, and Eric took full advantage of this new kind of material. During the song “He’s aTramp,”PegsingssomeofherlinesoveraraisedshoulderwithaVeronicaLakehairdo.Shewalks away from the camera and the spotlight as her tail and hip moves are greatlyexaggerated.AbeautifulroughanimationdrawingshowingPeginmid-song.©DisneyDrawing, movement, timing, and appeal are perfect. Eric had become very comfortableanimatingallsortsofanimals,andallthatknow-howhelpedturnPegintoanunexpectedstarofthefilm.WaltDisneywassoimpressedwithEric’sworkonLadyandtheTrampthatheofferedhimthe chance to co-direct the next ambitious feature, Sleeping Beauty. Eric took over theromanticboy-meets-girlsequence,withthegoalofturningit intooneofthemostbeautifulpiecesofanimated filmmakingever.Mostpeoplewouldagree thatEricachieved thatgoal.Unfortunatelyitalsoturnedouttobeoneofthemostexpensivesequenceseverproducedatthestudio,andWaltwasnotpleased.InordertoachieveanenchantingforestsettingforAuroraandPrincePhillip,Ericaskedhislayout and background artists to use the studio’s multiplane camera extensively. Severalindividual painted layers of trees, bushes, and branches were photographed at variousdistances under the camera to create an illusion of real depth. Scenes like thesewere veryeffective in taking the audience into theworld the characters are inhabiting, but theywerealsotime-consumingandverycostlytoproduce.Eric went back into animation for the films that followed, One Hundred and OneDalmatians,TheSword in theStone,MaryPoppins,andTheJungleBook.Hedidn’tget thechance to develop any characters for these films in the way he had done in the past. HisanimationontheDalmatianpuppies,SirEctor,Wart,Bagheera,andMowgliisgood,butlacksthecharmandinventivenessofhisearlierwork.ThefinalcharacterEriccouldcallhisownisthe littlemouseRoquefort in the filmTheAristocats.Suddenly thatLarson touchwasback,andEricturnedthisunusualassignmentofamousewhoisfriendswithafamilyofcatsintoamostcharmingcharacter.FACINGPAGERoquefort’smodelsheet,madeupofEric’sroughanimationdrawings.©DisneyFavoritescenesincludeRoquefortsharingamealwithduch*essandthekittens.Hebringsalongahugecracker,dipsitinthecats’warmmilkandmunchesaway,makingalotofnoise.When he finds out that the cats have been kidnapped, he puts on a Sherlock Holmescostumeandsetsouttofindthem.SterlingHollowayvoicedRoquefortbeautifully,andEricmaintainedquickmouse-likemovementsintheanimation.Whilework onTheAristocats continued, the studio started to realize that its animationdepartmentconsistedmostlyofartistswhoweregettingnearretirementage.Itwasdecidedthat,inordertoguaranteethefutureofDisneyanimation,new,youngtalenthadtobefoundandtrainedintheclassictechniques.EricLarsonturnedouttobetheperfectheadofthisnewtraining program, which was structured in the following manner: Eric gave lectures on aregularbasisonalltopicsregardingtheproductionofDisneyanimation.Healsoworkedwitheach trainee individually and helped them to express themselves in their animated scenes.Perfectmotionwasnotgoodenough;characteranimationatDisneyhadtoincludetheartist’sindividualpointofview.EricLarson’sfinalcontributiontotheartofanimationwasenormous.Hemadesurethatanewgenerationofanimatorssawthesignificance,thepotential,andthechallenge ofDisneypersonality animation.Without his important involvement as a teacherandmotivator, the filmmedium thatWalt Disney had pioneered formany decadeswouldhavediedinthe1970s.TheThreeCaballeros1945THEFLYINGGAUCHITOGAUCHITOANDBURRITOROUGHANIMATIONSc.37DuringabondingmomenttheGauchitooffershiswingeddonkeyasipofhismate,aSouthAmericandrink.TheBurritojumpsonthekidandbothgetentangledastheyrollbackwards.Thefinalposeshowsthedonkeyhavingadrinkthroughastraw,theGauchitobesidehim.Tokeeptheactionfromlookingcomplicated,Ericsimplifiedtheposesduringthetumble.Asthetwocharactersstraightenup,everythingisbackinplace,includingthemate.Throughoutthescene,EricdefinestheBurrito’sanatomyverythoroughly.AfterhavingworkedonFantasia’sflyinghorses,hewasreadytoapplythatknowledgetoaflyingdonkey,andmakeitlookbelievableaswellasentertaining.©DisneyPeterPan1953PETERPANANDWENDYCLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.2.1,Sc.52Duringaflyinglesson,PeterPantrieshisbesttogetWendyairborne.Notuntilthethirdtrydoes Wendy take to the air. In itself this is a powerful statement regarding animatedcharacters.Justasinreallife,thingsoftendon’tworkthefirsttimearound,ittakesrepeatedefforts.ThisscenewouldfeelveryboringifPeterhadsucceededthefirsttimearound.Butbyfailingacoupleoftimes,asincerehumantouchisaddedtowhatotherwisewouldhavebeenjustanordinarycontinuityscenewithoutmuchpersonality.Onatechnicallevel,theoverlappingmotiononWendy’slooseskirthelpstogivethesceneabeautifulflowandrhythm.©Disney©DisneyLadyandtheTramp1955PEGROUGHANIMATIONSeq.10,Sc.81Duringthedogpoundsequence,Pegstrutstowardthebackofthecell,singing:“AndIwishthatIcouldtravelhisway…wishthatIcouldtravelhisway…”EricfamouslystudiedsingerPeggyLee’swalkandappliedhersashayingqualitytothisdogcharacter,whosepersonalityissomewhatseductive.Heexaggeratedthehipmovementfromleft to right, each time one rear leg contacts the ground. Since Lee emphasized the word“way”severaltimesduringhersong,EricflairsoutPeg’stail inordertovisuallyaccentuatethesebeats.Thisisabeautifulcharacterwalkforadogwithashowgirlpast.©Disney©DisneyOneHundredandOneDalmatians1961ROLLYCLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.15,Sc.46After the cows in the barn generously offer their milk to the starving Dalmatian puppies,Rolly tries desperately to get close to one of the udders. After a few failed attempts hemanagestoclimbontoastool.ByleaningforwardandbalancinghimselfonLucky’sheadhealmostsucceeds.Butinsteadhisweightdragshimdownandhefallsonhisbelly—stillnomilk.EricwantedtoshowthatRollyisalittleclumsy,soonhiswaytothetopofthestool,hisrightrearfootslips,buthemanages intheend.Littlemishaps likethishelptocreateacharacterwhoseeffortsaren’talwaysperfect.Itgivesthisscenetexture,butalsomoreinterest,becausealittleDalmatianwhostrugglesismoreenjoyabletowatchthanonewhojustgoesthroughthemotionflawlessly.©Disney©DisneyTheSwordintheStone1963MADAMEMIMASDRAGONCLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.10,Sc.144Theduelofthewizardsisover,andMadamMimhaslostthebattle.Againstallrules,shehadturnedherselfintoadragon,butMerlinoutsmartedherbybecomingagermandMimcaughtthe disease. To show her frustration, Eric animated a childlike temper tantrum. “Oh… yousneakyoldscoundrel!”Mimpullsonherpurplehair,andbouncesupanddown,whichmakesthe ground tremble.At the end she resigns exhaustedly and leans back against a tree. Ericdrewextreme,butfunnyexpressionsthroughoutthescenetoshowMim’sfury.Asherupperbodymovesbackward,thelegscomeupforcounterbalance,whichresultsinahilariousfinalpose.©Disney©DisneyWardKimballEarlyin1937,WardKimballwasnothappyaboutworkingforWaltDisney.Asamatteroffacthewas seriously thinkingaboutquitting the studio.SnowWhite and the SevenDwarfswas in the final phase of production, and every artist involvedwith the filmwasworkingenthusiastically and long hours to meet deadlines. Yet Kimball could not share the crew’ssentiment,hewasbrooding.Practicallyallofhisanimationhadjustbeencutoutofthemovie.Hewastoldthathissequenceinvolvingthesevendwarfseatingsoupprovedirrelevanttothefilm’splotline.AnotheranimatedsectionthatshowedthedwarfsbuildingabedforSnowWhitehadbeeneliminatedaswellforthesamereason.Wardhadcontributedscenesforthispiece aswell.What remained of hisworkwere a few shotswith the vultures, as they flyabove theWitch, who is making her way into the forest toward the dwarfs’ cottage. AmeetingwithWardandDisneywasscheduled,and itsoutcomecouldhavebeentheendofKimball’scareeratthestudio.What happened instead proved thatWaltDisneywas amasterwhen it came to dealingwithanyofhisartists’problems.Wardleft thatmeetinganxioustogetbacktohisdrawingboard.Walt had just given him a brand new assignment, a character who would play animportantroleinthestudio’snextanimatedfeaturePinocchio.KimballwasgoingtodevelopandanimateJiminyCricket,andhewaspromotedtosupervisinganimator.Disney’spassionas well as his powers of persuasion had just helped him to avoid losing one of his mostimportant artists. Kimball’s subsequent career at the studio was long and fruitful, but notwithouttheoccasionalbumpintheroad.WardKimballwashiredonApril2,1934.Hewasplacedintothein-betweenerpool,whichincluded a group of newcomerswho learned the ropes by assisting experienced animators.AfterhelpingoutonshortfilmslikeTheWiseLittleHenandTheGoddessofSpring,hewasfinallygiventhechancetodosomeofhisownanimationontheshortElmerElephant.WardimpressedsenioranimatorHamLuskewithhisfirstattemptsasasoloanimator.ThisledtoanassignmentthatcateredtoKimball’smusicaltalents.IntheshortWoodlandCaféheanimatedseveraljazzmusiciansportrayedbyinsects.Theenergyofthejazzymusicaltrackisperfectlycapturedinthefast-timedanimation.Ward’sownenthusiasmasamusiciancomesthroughintheinsects’exuberant,rubber-hosemovements.Thefeetaretapping,handsworkthemselvesinandoutofcamera,andthewholebodyreactstothemusicalrhythm.Thesescenescaughttheattentionofmanypeopleat the studio, andperhaps latergaveWaltDisney the idea tohaveWarddevelopacertaininsectforthefilmPinocchio.Spirited,perfectlytimedmusicalmovessignalKimball’sattitudetowardhiswork.Purefun.©DisneyTheloosenessshowcasedinKimball’searlyanimationwasmuchmoresuitabletocartoonycharactersthanrealisticones.WhenthestudiobeganworkonSnowWhite,itwasnosurprisethatWardendedupinthedwarfsunit.Hismainsequencemighthavebeencutfromthefilmbutlookingatindividualdrawingsfromthisdeletedsection,wecanonlymarvelatthewayWardexaggeratedthedwarfs’faceswithouteverlosingthecharacters’charm.WhenthesescenesweredeletedfromSnowWhite,WardverynearlyquitworkingforWaltDisney.©DisneyCharmwasaqualityWardhadaveryhardtimegettingintohisnextassignment—JiminyCricket from the film Pinocchio. “A cricket looks like a cross between a co*ckroach and agrasshopper,”hestatedinalaterinterview.Naturally,asaDisneyartist,itisobvioustostartresearchingthecharacteristicsoftherealinsect.ButeachtimeWardwouldshowWaltDisneyanupdateddesignofJiminyforapproval,theboss’responsewasalwaysthesame:toougly,lacksappeal.AftermorefrustratingattemptsandvirtuallyeliminatinganyresemblancetoarealcrickethefinallysucceededingettingWalt’sOK.BythistimeJiminylookedappealing,butnotmuchlikeaninsectatall.InsteadhisproportionsweresimilartoMickeyMouse’s.Earlydesignsbasedonrealcricketsand(opposite)Kimball’sfinalversionofJiminy.©DisneyWard might not have been entirely happy with Jiminy Cricket’s appearance, but he mostcertainlysucceededindevelopinghispersonalityasacaringandlikablementortoPinocchio.Hemightlooklikealittlemanwithoutears,buthejumpshighlikearealcricket.Thetimingin his acting is quick and contrasting, but the overall performance is always sincere andbelievable.TheaudiencelikesJiminyinstantly,becausehecaressomuchaboutPinocchio.Justlike Mickey Mouse, his poses are strong and easy to read. Occasionally Ward gave himcomplexdancemovesthatareajoytowatch.AfterPinocchiocomestolifewiththehelpofthe Blue Fairy, they both celebrate while singing “Give a Little Whistle.” Again Ward’smusicality comes forward during Jiminy’s line: “And always let your conscience be yourguide.”Thedancestepsare incrediblycomplicatedwhenanalyzed;everybodypart isdoingsomethingdifferently,yetthewholeworksinrhythmicperfection.Complexscenesliketheserequire 24 drawings per second (simple and slow-moving scenes usually involve only 12).Here every single drawing is all-important and needs to be made by the animator. Therearen’tanyin-betweensthatcouldbepassedontotheassistant.Alldrawingsarekey,therearenoin-betweenswhenanimatingascenethiscomplex.©DisneyFew Disney feature characters achieve top stardom like Jiminy Cricket. Once audienceshaveembracedsuchapersonality,theyareeagertoseemoreappearances.JiminyandTinkerBellfromPeterPanbothhavebecomeiconswhor*presentnotonlyTheWaltDisneyStudios,butanimationasawhole.TheseambassadorsintroduceTVshows,theyaremainattractionsintheme parks and have become popular merchandise characters. In other words theirpopularityhas afforded theman afterlife.Kimball’s next animated character required againcarefulsynchronizationbetweenmovementandmusic.Bacchusfromthe“Pastoral”sequenceinFantasia andhis donkey-unicorn Jacchus are anunequal pair. The littlemule has a hardtimecarryingtheoversizedgodofwine,buthisoff-balancemovespresentedpossibilitiesforfunny character animation. Bacchus is interested in only two things, wine and the alluring“centaurettes.”Achubbyandintoxicatedpersonalitylikehimmovesinunsteadyandwobblyways,whichareallsyncedheretothebeatofBeethoven’smusic.Eventhoughtherearesomefun moments to animate, particularly during the dance, Ward was not very fond of thisassignment. The character’s design as well as his role in the film didn’t come up to hisstandards.Heenviouslywatchedhiscolleagueswhopulledoutallthestopswhenanimatingthehilariousparodyof theballet“Danceof theHours”.“Once inawhilesomethingperfectcomesalong,”Wardstatedyears later. “The ‘Danceof theHours’ turnedoutasperfectas itgets.”BacchusandJacchusmightnothavebeenfavoriteassignments,butWardstillmanagedtoanimatethemwithcomicgusto.©DisneyBeautifullydrawn,outrageousposesprovehowmuchfuntheanimatorwashavingwithhisassignment.Wardlikedtobreakrulesoflogicwhenitthestoodinthewayofentertainment.AphilosophythatwouldbecomeaKimballtrademark.©DisneyIn the filmTheReluctantDragon,Ward finally found a role that offered a tour de forceactingopportunity: a cartoony lookingdragonwho is expected toputupa fightwith localknights.But instead theDragon ispetrifiedat themere thoughtofa combat—it turnsouthe is apoetwhoenjoyshisafternoontea.ActorBarnettParker’svoicesuggestedaflamboyanttypewhowouldexpresshimselfthroughtheatricalgestures.Wardchargedatthisrichmaterialandcreatedoneofhisall-timegreatanimatedpersonalities.Hisactingchoicesareperfectlyinlinewith thedialoguerecordings: flamboyantactingat itsbest.Atonepoint theDragon invitestheBoytoapicniconhisbelly.Hedecidestoreciteapoemhewroteaboutanupside-downcake.Hesosympathizeswiththecake’sdilemmabecauseitstopisonthebottom,heisevenmovedtotearsandgivesitalittlekiss.Itisabsolutelyhilarioustoseehowsincerethedragonisduringhisperformance.Kimball’sposescommunicateacharacterwhoisactinginfrontofanaudience.A few years agoWardwas reminiscing about the character and said that theReluctantDragonwasprobablythefirstgaycharacterinthehistoryofanimation.BynowKimball’sexpressiveandinventivestyleofanimationwasrecognizedandadmiredbymostofhisco-workers. ItcameasnosurprisethatWardwouldnotjointheBambiunit,insteadhewasofferedtodevelopagroupofcrowsforthefilmDumbo.Thesebirdsplayedacrucialpart inthestory.TheyfirstridiculeDumboafterbeingtoldthathehadflownintoatree.EventuallytheybecomeconvincedandtryeverythingtheycantomakeDumbotaketotheskyagain.Wardparticularlyenjoyedanimatingtheirsongnumber“WhenISeeanElephantFly.”Hemanaged to create five different crow personalitieswith JimCrow as the boss. Everybodymoves according to their body type—skinny, tall, or chubby, etc. As they walk and strut,singingalong,thetimingispunchyandfluidatthesametime.JimCrowatonepointrotatesoneofhislegscompletelyillogically,anatomicallyspeaking,beforekickingitout.Twoothercrows lean against each other dancing away from the camera, except their combinedsilhouetteonlyshowstwolegsinsteadoffour.Breakingtherulesoflogicinordertopresentsomething unexpected is a quality Kimball relished. Some directors and animators at thestudio questioned this approach, thinking that believability is being lost with this kind ofsurrealanimation.ButWardremainedundeterred, thiswas thewayhe saw themediumofanimation,anongoingexperimentinhowtoentertaininnewways.Nonsensicalstagingandmovementfor“WhenISeeanElephantFly.”©DisneyDuringtheearly1940sWardbroughthisunconventionalsensibilitiestoDisneyshortfilmsaswell.FortheMickeyMouseshortTheNiftyNineties,Wardgottoanimateaveryunusualsequence, one that involved two characters who turned out to be caricatures of Disneyanimators.ThefirstonewasWardhimself,thesecondonewashisfriend,animatorFredMoore.Thewalls of Kimball’s office had long been filled with gag drawings depicting these two inmischievous situations, so it didn’t seem far-fetched to utilize their designs as animatedvaudeville performers for an audience that included Mickey and Minnie Mouse. They tapdanceacrossthestage,thenpauseforamoment,soWardcantellFredajoke:“Heybrowneyes,who is that lady I saw youwith last night?” “Thatwas no lady, thatwasmywife!”Laughter follows, andWardhits Fredon theheadwithahammer.This is slapstick cartoonbusiness,andKimballtriedeverythingtopresentitinafunnyways.OnFred’slastdialogueline,thewordwifeisanimatedbysuddenlyenlarginghismouthdisproportionally.Thisisanoddchoice, butbecause it comesunexpectedly it looksvery funny.Wardproves again thatyoucan’tgowrongbysurprisingtheaudience.FredMooreassillyvaudevilleentertainer.©DisneyMore juicy animation assignments kept coming Ward’s way. The 1945 film The ThreeCaballerosfeaturedabigsongnumberwithDonaldDuck,PanchitoPistoles,andJoséCarioca.Kimball,whoanimatedthewholemusicalnumber,explainedhisapproachfortheanimationduringa1984interview:Iwasgiventhislongsongthatwentonforthreeorfourminuteswithnobusiness.SoIlistened to the song for about aweek. I turned all the lights off in the room and justlistened to the song, visualizing it. I said there is nothing I can do except being literalabout it. When they say: “We’re three happy chappies with snappy serapes,” all of asuddentheserapesappear.Oneof thefirstcriticisms,whenthedirectorsawthepenciltest,was:Theduckgoesoutontheright,andhecomes inonthe left.Andtheroostergoesoutonthetop,andhecomesinfromthebottom.Youcan’tdothat,it’snotlogical.Youhavetohavethesetieups,youhavetomakesense.AndIsaid:Look,whocares?Aguy runs out on the left and comes in on the right. Imean, that gives it its flavor, itscraziness.Luckily whenWalt saw the sequence, he had no objections whatsoever. And the song’sanimationremainedintact.WardturnedthesongnumberinTheThreeCaballerosintooneofanimation’smosthilariousandsurrealmoments.©DisneyWalt Disney knew by now about Ward’s strength as an animator who, with eachassignment,strivedfornewwaysofdoingthings.Kimballhimselfstatedoncethatanimationrequiresanendlessamountofdrawings,sowhyrepeatyourselfwhenthereisachancetodosomething inadifferentway?Aswackyassomeofhisscenesmighthave turnedout, theystill have a believable quality becauseWardwas an excellent draftsmanwho animated hischaracterswithrealweight.Withoutweightthereisonlygraphicmovement,whichinvolvesanaudienceonlytoapoint.Butbymovingdifferentpartsofthebodyseparatelyandtimingthembased onwhat they aremade of (bodymass, hair, clothing) the animatedwholewillcome to life.Ward applied these rules in everythinghedid, andhis assignment to animateseveralcharactersfortheshortPeterandtheWolfwasnoexception.HedrewkeysceneswiththeSashathecatandSoniatheduck.Buthismost inventiveandoriginalanimationcanbeseenwhenthethreehuntersarrive.Mischa,Yascha, andVladimir are entirely comical characters.Ashuners they look about aseffectiveastheThreeStooges.WhenthelittlebirdSashatriestogettheirattentiontoinformthem about Peter’s plight, the befuddled and confused troop runs around in circles beforeregrouping.Kimball’swayofmovingthesecharacters isnothingshortofbreathtaking.Astheymaketheirwaythroughtheforest,thelegmovementsrangefromtip-toeingtolongstrides.Whentheyfindoutabout thedangerahead, theycharge forward,propelledbyunrealisticcircularlegmotion.Wardsqueezeseverybitof funoutof this trio,which includesconstantbouncingof theirhatsaswellasloosefollow-throughactionintheirclothing.ItisobviousthatKimballrelishedbringingtheseclumsyhunterstolife.©DisneyWard’s next character assignment would be comical again, but a little more skilled andaccomplishedthanthethreeRussianhunters.PecosBill ispartofthe1948full-lengthfeatureMelody Time. The character was primarily animated byWard Kimball andMilt Kahl, twohighly skilled animators with somewhat different ideologies. Kahl insisted on masterfullydrawnanimationthatshowednatural,believablemovement.Kimballontheotherhandwasdriven by a need to experiment and invent in order to maximize the entertainment.Astonishingly Pecos Bill works seamlessly in continuity, there is only one version of thecharacter on the screen.Ward animated the opening scenes when young Pecos falls off amovingwagon.He is left behind and eventually raised by coyotes. He befriends an infanthorse, later named Widowmaker. As adults we see the two of them bonding duringoutrageousadventureslikechasingacycloneaswellasropingandpullingaraincloudfromCalifornia all the way to Texas for drought relief. All this outrageous story material wasperfectlysuited forKimball,whoalwayspreferredworkingwithsuch impossible situations.HeevenanimatedascenewithPecosandWidowmakeryodelingintothecameraastheyareridingalong.InordertoshowthemouthactionsclearlyWardunderplayedtheoverallbodymovement,sotheviewerremainsfocusedontheexpressiveyodelingphrasing.Fromatechnicalpointofview,thesesceneswereveryinvolved.Thehorseononehandisrunning, jumpingand rearingup,whilePecoson top is lassoing, shooting, and singing.Theactionanalysisalonemighthavebeentoodifficultformanyanimators,butKimballmadeitlookeasy.After animating scenes for both sections of the filmTheAdventures of Ichabod andMr.Toad,Ward joined the teamthatwouldre-establish theDisneyfull-lengthanimated featurefilmwithCinderella.Hewasputinchargetodevelopthestepmother’sevilcatLucifer,whoofteninteractedwithasympatheticgroupofresidentmice.AtthetimeWardwascriticizedfor his design of Lucifer, as a cartoony, fat villainwith almost no believable anatomy. Thehumancastwasanimatedwiththehelpoflife-actionreference,andtheiranimationrequiredcarefuldrawingcombinedwithrealisticmotion,instarkcontrasttoLucifer.ButKimballdidn’tcare, thiswas thewayhewas going to approach the cat.AndWaltDisney did not object,becausehemighthaveforeseenthetypeofentertainmentWardwouldcomeupwithforthecat and mice. One sequence in particular turned out to be a comedic masterpiece. AsCinderellaarrangesbreakfast itemson trays forher stepfamilymembers,Lucifer franticallysearchesforthemouseGusunderthecups.AmodelsheetmadeupfromKimball’skeyanimationposes.©DisneyKimball’smodelsheetofLuciferrevealsstrongposesandevilexpressions,inspiteofanoverallcartoonyappearance.©DisneyThisisafightagainsttime,becausesoonthetrayswillbetakenupstairs.Lucifer’sparanoidtimingaccelerates,becauseheknowsthemouseissomewhereunderoneofthecups.ThefactthattheaudienceknowsatalltimeswhereGusishidingjustaddstothishilariouspantomimescene. Even animation maestro Milt Kahl admitted years later: “I could never have doneanythinglikethat.”WardagainavoidedgettingcastonarealisticcharacterwhenproductionbeganforAliceinWonderland.This timehewasgiventheopportunity toanimateawholerangeofeccentricpersonalities.Although some of themwere human characters, they did not conform to theworldAlicecamefrom.Afterall, thiswasWonderland.TweedledumandTweedledeemoveas if their bodies were water balloons. They constantly bounce into each other as theyintroduce themselves.ActuallyWard uses this physical contact to great comical effect. Theeccentric animation is perfectly timed to lively music and silly sound effects. As so oftenbefore,Kimballenjoysinventingunusuallegmovementsthatgoagainstanylogic.Hebreaksthe knees in order to get a wacky effect, anything to make themmove in unrealistic butentertainingways.TweedledumandTweedledeemoveasiftheirbodieswerewaterballoons.©DisneyWhatmade theMadTeaParty sooutstandingwas the fact thatabsolutelynothingmadesense,yetpoorAlicetriesrepeatedlytoreasonwithcrazycharactersliketheMadHatterandtheMarchHare.Althoughsomeliveactionwasfilmed,Kimball’sanimationshowsnotraceofanysuchreference.HedidpickuppiecesofbusinessfromactorsEdWynnandJerryColonna,but by incorporating this into his broad animation, the results look original and fresh. Thiskindoflively,cartoonyanimationcaneasilylookoveractivewhennottimedproperly.Inallofthisfriskymovementthereneededtobemomentsofpauseinordertoshowthecharactersthinking, otherwise any personality statement gets lost in hectic graphic motion. Ward ofcourseknewthisverywell.Hewouldtakeadvantageofthesequieterintervalsandaddfunnybutsubtlebitsofactionlikeanearwiggleorunusualdialogueshapes.TheequallymadMarchHare.©DisneyTheMadHatter’stonguewasusedtoanimatehisdialoguewithalisp.©DisneyThe Cheshire Cat was animated in an entirely different way. Ward underplayed thischaracter tobringouthis schizophrenicpersonality.Differentpartsof thecat’sbodyappearanddisappear slowly, andhis smoothmovements are peculiar andoffbeat.He can literallyremovehisheadandstandonit.Healsogestureswithhishindlegs.KimballconsideredtheCheshireCattobetherealmadoneinthefilm.ThepsychoticCheshireCatmightmoveslowly,butheexpressespureinsanity.©DisneyTherewasnotnearlyasmuchmadnesstobefoundinDisney’snextanimatedfeature,PeterPan.Thetitlecharacteraswellasthechildrenwereconceivedasbeingrealfleshandbloodcharacters, not the kind of assignmentWardwould look forward to getting involvedwith.Aroundthistime,severaloftheotheranimatorsvoicedtheirdisapprovalofnotevergettingthetypeofjuicyassignmentsthatWardhadenjoyedovertheyears.MarcDavisstatedthatheandMilt Kahl most of the time ended up animating the realistic human characters, whileKimballhadallthefundoingcartoonystuff.Nevertheless,WaltDisneyknewhisanimators’strengths(andweaknesses)verywell,andhecastWardontheIndianChief.Needlesstosaythisimposing,authoritativecharacterturnedouttobeasentertainingasanythingWardhaddone in the past. In most of the Chief’s scenes he acts very serious and stern, not verycompellingqualities.WhatWard focusedon, inorder togethumor into theanimation,wastheway the IndianChief talked.His largemouth configuration is somewhatuniquewithalongupperlipanddeepwrinkles.Uniquemouthshapesandpunchytiminggivegreatinteresttohis dialogue scenes. It’s just fun to seehim say thenameofhis daughterTigerLily andwatchhistonguewiggleinsidehismouth.UnusualdialogueanimationhelpedtoenrichtheIndianChief’spersonality.©DisneyWhenworkbeganonLadyandtheTramp,WardrealizedthatthetrendtowardrealisminDisneyfeaturesmeantfeweropportunitiestoexpresshimself.PerhapsthetwovillainouscatsSi and Am could be handled in a way that would be in line with his artistic sensibilities.Kimballwentallouttomakethemvicious,zany,andunpredictable.Unfortunatelytheresultsdid not fit inwith the overall styling of the film, andWardwas taken off the picture. Hesubsequently took on the job of director/animator for the experimental musical short filmToot,Whistle,PlunkandBoom,whichpresentedthehistoryofmusicalinstrumentsthroughouttheworld.Backinhiselement,WardpushedtheboundariesofDisneyanimation,thistimeona smaller budget. Limited animation had been pioneered before at other animation studioslikeUPA,andWardwas fascinatedby thechallengeof findingentertainmentwithminimalmotionon the screen.Veryoften the character’s body isheld inonedrawing,whileonlyahandoraneyemoves.Theoverallvisual statementcanbemuchmorepoignant thanwhatfull, all-involved character animation offers. Traditional Disney characters become living,breathing beings, but in limited animation the motion is greatly reduced, and the vieweracceptsthatflatdrawingscommunicateamorerestrainedkindofacting.ModerngraphicshelpaltertheconventionalDisneystyle.©DisneyWard once again did not fit inwith the studio’s next animated feature Sleeping Beauty,where the focuswasonstylizedbutrealisticdrawingandseriousstorytelling.Luckilyotheropportunities came along when Disney entered the world of television. A series of showsdealingwithman’sfutureinouterspacewasbeingdeveloped,andKimballwasputinchargeasadirector.Limitedanimationwasagainusedtoachievedramaticaswellascomicalresults.TheseTVshowswerehugelysuccessful,andWardlaterrecalledthatthisperiodatthestudiomighthavebeenhishappiest.Aftersuchacreativeandinnovativechapterasadirectoratthestudio,Wardallofasuddenfoundhimselfatoddswithhisboss,WaltDisney,whilehewassupervisingsequencesonthemostlylive-actionfilmBabesinToyland.WaltwasunhappywithWard’sstoryworkaswellas the choices he made for casting actors. In heavy disagreement, Ward found himself“demoted”backtoanimator.Intheearly1960shewasputtoworkonTVshowsfeaturingthenewcharacterLudwigVonDrake.Kimballanimatedseveralentertainingsequences,buttheoldKimballanimatedsparkwasmissing.Nevertheless,afterWalt’sdeathin1966,Wardstillexperienced a couple of career high points. He directed the Academy Award-winninganimated/liveactionshortIt’sToughtoBeaBird,andin1971heservedasanimationdirectorfor themostly live-action filmBedknobsandBroomsticks.Themovie’shighlight is a soccergame played by various animated animals on the island of Naboombu. Here the Kimballtouchisevidentinalmosteveryscene,astheanthropomorphiccharactersplaythegamebymakinguseoftheiranimalcharacteristics.Thegoalkeeperelephantshootstheballacrossthefieldwithhistrunk,whilethecheetahrunssofastthathisfeetcatchonfire.ThisisahilarioussequencethatonlyreachescomedichighsbecauseofWard’sinvolvement.ItturnedouttobehislastcontributiontoDisneyanimationbeforeheretiredin1973.ThefilmMarsandBeyondexploredthepossibilitiesofalienlifeforms.©DisneyWardKimball’s long career as aDisneyanimatoranddirector isunique;nooneelseputthatmucheffortintoexpandingthehorizonofcharacteranimation.Witheachassignmenthekeptaskinghimself:WhatcanIdodifferentlythistimearound?Hishyperexperimentalspiritwasalwaysgroundedinsuperbclassicdraftsmanshipandinagreatsensefororiginalcomedy.No matter how off-the-wall his characters might behave, they always came across asbelievable and enjoyable. Today’s animation community can still benefit and learn fromWard’s rich body ofwork, aswell as his philosophy:why repeat yourselfwhen there is achancetodosomethingdifferent?FerdinandtheBull1938PICADORONHORSEROUGHANIMATIONSc.39AheadofFerdinand’splannedbullfight,alineofvariousfightersparadeintothearenabeforethematador.Kimballanimatedallof thesecharacters.TheirdesignsrepresentcaricaturesofDisneyanimators,andthispicadoronadilapidatedhorseisstaranimatorBillTytla.ThefactthatWard placed him on such a battered horse shows that he is poking fun at his highlyregardedcolleague.TheTytlacharactermoveseversoproudlyupanddownfromthesaddle,exudinganalmostridiculousamountofconfidence.Thehorseisanimatedbywalkinginplaceinaccordancewiththecameramove.Thefeetseem to slide on the ground but, combined with the moving background, the connectionbetweencharacterandsceneryisperfect.Thismethodofworkingoutapieceofactionduringacameramovewaspreferredbymostanimators.Usinganalternatewayofhandlingascenelike this, onewould be animating the character physically across the page, and then on toanotherone.Bystayinginplacewouldseemlikeasimplerwayofdoingthis,butitrequiredprecisesynchronizationwiththeincrementsofthecameramove.These few drawings only represent a small portion of this long and labor-intensemulti-characterscene.©Disney©DisneyFantasia1940BACCHUSROUGHANIMATIONSeq.4.3,Sc.43It is astonishing to seehow roughWardKimball’sdrawings for this sceneare.Andyet,hekeepscontrolofthischubbygodofwinethroughoutthebroadanimation,whichiscarefullytimedtothemusicofBeethoven.Bacchusischasingandinteractingwithvariouscentaurettes.Hisbodymassistreatedlikeawaterballoonthatspinsoutofcontrolattheendofthescene.Thecounter-movementofthelong,softcapeaddstotheoverallfluidfeeltothescene.On some of the drawingsKimball indicated lightly key positions for centaurettes,whichwerelaterhandledbyanimatorJackBradbury.©Disney©DisneyMakeMineMusic/PeterandtheWolf1946HUNTERSROUGHANIMATIONSeq.7,Sc.99These few rough drawings show two of the three hunters being startled by Peter’swhistlesoundcomingfromuphighinatree.Theyhadallbeeninformedoftheboy’sencounterwiththedangerouswolf,andtheirreactionisportrayedasawild,nervousscrambleofmovementsbeforerunningintoeachother.Extremelybroadactionlikethis isplayedforcomedyandpaintsthehuntersasrelativelyharmlessandconfusedcharacters.This is a textbook example of two cartoony body masses smashing together, thenseparatingbeforefallingtotheground.©DisneyCinderella1950LUCIFERCLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.1.6,Sc.63In an effort to portray Lucifer not only as evil, but also as an eerie and bizarre character,Kimball invented this sneaky motion as the cat follows Cinderella up the stairs. At thismomenthisattentionisonamousewhichishidingunderoneoftheteacupsplacedonthetray Cinderella is carrying. This quick felinemovement is completely illogical, as Lucifer’sbodystayslowtothegroundandconformstotheshapeofthesteps,creatingazigzagmove.There is a confident, but also deviant quality to the scene. Lucifer believes that if he staysdeterminedinhispursuit,itwillonlybeamatteroftimebeforethatmousebecomesasnack.©DisneyAliceinWonderland1951TWEEDLEDUMCLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.5,Sc.36In this scene Tweedledum leaves his buddy Tweedledee offscreen as he starts to recite thestoryoftheWalrusandtheCarpentertoacuriousAlice.Hesingswithacharacteristiclisp:“Thethunwatchshiningonthethea,shiningwithallhithmight…”During the line,KimballmovesTweedledumto therightand then to the left.Thebodyactioncanbebrokenupintothreesegments.Theupperbodyisinvolvedinvariousarmgestures,theroundbellysquashesandstretchesslowly throughout, and the legs perform illogical twirling moves. Everything works welltogetherwithentertainingresults.ThisunrealisticapproachtomovementplacesthischaracterfirmlyinthesurrealworldofWonderland.©Disney©DisneyMiltKahlAnimator Milt Kahl wasn’t happy with the way the character of Pinocchio was comingalong in late1937.Duringameetinghevoicedhisdisapproval; thedesign justdidnot lookappealingtohim.Hereceivedacertainlookfromotherartistsintheroom,thenoneofthedirectors,feelingsomewhatannoyed,askedMilttoputhispencilwherehismouthwas.So the28-year-oldanimatorwent towork, trying toprove thathewasperfectlyable toimprove on the existing design of Pinocchio.Milt’s approach went in a new direction, hisdrawingsshowedthecharacterasacharminglittleboy,whojusthappenedtohavejointslikeamarionette.Thefactthathewasmadeoutofwoodwasofsecondaryimportance.It turnedout thatWaltDisney just lovedMilt’snewdesigns, and subsequentlypromotedhim to supervising animator for Pinocchio. Eventually Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomasjoinedtheunitthatwouldberesponsibleforanimatingimportantpersonalitysequenceswiththetitlecharacter.EarlydesignconceptsandKahl’simprovedlookforthecharacter.©DisneyStarting with Pinocchio, Walt relied more and more on Milt Kahl’s extraordinarydraftsmanshipandhissensefordesigningcharacters.Ollie Johnston stated years later that Milt’s drawingsalways stood out and showed thepersonalitiesinaverybelievableway.Headded:“I’vebeencalledcrazy,butIdobelievethatMiltdrawsaswellasMichelangelo.”Walt Disney was very lucky to have a master draftsman on staff, and Milt Kahl wasfortunatetojoinhisstudioatatimewhenhisspecialtalentsthoroughlylentthemselvestothedemands of this new art form. “I turned out to be just perfect for this medium,” Miltpronouncedconfidentlyduringaninterviewintheearly1980s.EarlierhetoldassistantDaveMichener:“I’mthebestdraftsmanaroundhere—that’snotbragging,that’safact!”Even before the production of Pinocchio, Milt had made a name for himself as a classanimator.HisworkonshortfilmslikeFerdinand,theBullandTheUglyDucklingcaughttheattentionofhisbossaswellashiscolleagues.ThischarmingroughdrawingofyoungFerdinandshowsKahl’sconfidencewithacharacter,whoseanatomyisbasedontherealanimal.©DisneyThesadattitudeof the littleducklingcommunicatesa levelofpathosrarelyachievedbefore inanimation.Miltchose thisslow,aimlesswalktoportrayloneliness.©DisneyForDisney’sfirstfull-lengthanimatedfeatureSnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarfs,MiltKahlteamedupwithEricLarsontochoreographthecomplexanimationoftheforestanimalsthatinteracted with Snow White. Crowd scenes like these proved technically challenging. Foronce, the animal groupingsneeded to read as a cohesivewhole, but certain specific animalbehaviorshadtobeactedout.AdoveblushesonthePrince’shandafterhavingdeliveredakissfromSnowWhite.©DisneyAnemotionallychargeddrawingshowsagroupofanimalsmourningthedeathoftheprincess©DisneyFollowing Pinocchio it was the film Bambi that offered new challenges for supervisinganimatorsFrankThomas,EricLarson,Ollie Johnston, andMiltKahl.WaltDisneyasked forbelievable animal characterswhose anatomy needed to be based on real deer, rabbits, andbirds.Marc Davis spent many months preparing rough character model sheets showing asuccessfulcombinationofanimalandhumancharacteristics.ButitwasMiltKahlwhoshapedthefinalappearanceforallthedeeraswellasThumper,therabbit.Hewentontoanimatethememorablesequence,wherethebunnieschallengeyoungBambitoleapoverafallentree.Bambimovesinveryinterestingandunusualwayshere.Hisanticipationforthebigjumplookslikesomethingadogwoulddo:headdowntotheground,rearwayup,tailwiggling.Hethenchargesforward,butfailstomakeitacrossthetree.Afterabellylanding,Bambimoveshishindlegsacrosstheobstacle,oneaftertheother.Theyinterlock,andforafewmomentshewobbles, out of balance on three legs, resulting in another fall. It is this carefully plannedawkwardnessintheanimationthatmakesthescenesoentertaining.Miltknewatanygivenmoment about weight and momentum of all parts of the deer’s body. Because of thatknowledge,hewasabletoplayupthecomedywhilemaintainingbelievability.Milt’sknowledgeaboutweightandmomentumshinesthroughinthesequencewhereBambiistryingtojumpoverthefallenlog.©DisneyMilt also didmost sceneswith adultBambi and Feline, includingwhen those two fall inlove.AftermeetingFelineasagrown-up,Bambistumblesbackwardandendsuplandinginwater.Felinegiveshimalickonthecheekandtheprinceoftheforestissmitten.Fromhereontheanimationbecomesbroadandappropriatelyover-the-top.Bambi’ssmileissowide,itlooksextreme,butfittingonacartoondeerwithsucharealisticdesign.A few scenes animated in slowmotion follow. Bambi follows Feline, jumping elegantlythroughclouds—thesurrealvisualcluesareobvious.HereagainMiltshowshisextraordinarytalent for making impossible movements look real. After having studied realistic deeranatomy intensely, he then was able to invent uniquemotion patterns that looked utterlyconvincing.AwidesmileforasmittenBambi.©DisneyBambiinlove.©DisneyDuringtheWWIIyears,DisneyStudioswereonlyabletoproduceshort-filmmaterial,buteventhenMiltcontinuedtoanimatebrilliantnewcharacters.The1943movieSaludosAmigosincludedasectionwithDonaldDuckandallamainPeru.Inonescene,Donald’sfluteplayingstartstoirritatethedancingllama.Theresultisanexampleofhilariouslytimedcomedy.Theactionisbroadlyanimated,butcompletelybelievable.Thellamamovesalwaysshowastrongsenseofweight.Thisisaheavyanimalwithafullcoatoffur,andMiltmakesgreatuseofthisbody type.Aftera spiritedCharleston, the llama loses controloverhisdancemoves, a fewawkwardhopsfollowbeforetheanimalfallstotheground.Duringtheseleaps,Miltgivesthellamamore timewhenairborneand less timewhenmaking contact to theground. (This isactuallytheruleofthumbwhenanimatingafour-leggedanimalrunningorjumping.)Onthewayupthere isalwaysastrongstretchgoingthroughthewholebody,andwhenhefinallyfalls down, the big squash on the llama’s rear makes for a hard impact and feels verysatisfying.Somehow Milt times these moves so beautifully, and he takes great advantage ofoverlappingactionsuchastoes,thehead,andallthatfur.Theanimationisthereforefluid;itiseasytoreadonthescreenandajoytowatch.ThedancingllamafromSaludosAmigosisajoytowatch.©DisneyFor the1943propagandashort filmReasonandEmotion,MiltKahl contributedbeautifulcartoonyanimationofEmotion,acavemantype,andReason,asortofrationalbookkeeper.JumpingfromtherealismofBambitobroadcharacteranimationlikethisdidn’tseemtobeaproblemforMiltatall.Evenearlyoninhiscareerheprovedthathecouldhandleahugerangeofcharacterconceptsandanimationstyles.Thecaveman-likecharacterofEmotion.©DisneySong of the South was released in 1946, and Milt Kahl turned to story-man Bill Peet’sdrawings as inspiration for the final designs of the fox, the bear, and the rabbit.Animatingthese characters turnedout tobeoneofMilt’s favorite assignments.Thepersonalitieswereclearly defined and very contrasting, and Peet’s story work provided the animators withoutrageoussituations.TheseanthropomorphicanimalsgaveMiltachancetobemuchbroaderwithhisanimation,somethinghecherished.Thecharacter’svoicesprovidedaspringboardforrazorsharptiming,yet nothing looks over-animated. Key poses are held long enough to read clearly; it is thetransitionstoanotherposethathappenveryfast.TheseKahlsketchesshowaperfectandappealingmixofhumanandanimaltraits.©DisneyMilt animated short film characters likePecosBill (1948) alongwithWardKimball, thenJohnnyAppleseed(1948)withOllieJohnston.Thelatterturnedouttobeaboretoanimate,according toMilt. Johnnywas justmild-mannered andnever showed any strong emotions.Neverthelesshisanimationisnuancedandappealing.AmodelsheetforPecosBillmadeupofKahlanimationdrawings.©DisneyWhen Disney returned to full-length animated feature films, starting withCinderella in1950, Milt was relieved to get back to projects he felt were important. He supervised theanimationof theauthoritativeKingaswellas theDuke,whoisalwaystryingtoplease.BynowMilt had become a very experienced top animator.Hewas able to not only focus ongoodcharacteranimation,butalsoontheoveralldesignofeachkeydrawing.Clearsilhouette,abalanceof straightversus curved lines, anda focusonbeautifullydrawnhandsbecameastandardofKahl’swork.TheDukefromCinderella.©DisneyAnothercharacterhedevelopedwasthewarmandsympatheticFairyGodmother.Thefactthatshewasoccasionallyabsent-mindedonlyenhancedherpersonalityandledtointerestingacting.Milt proved that he was perfectly capable of bringing a character to life whose actingrequiredsubtletiesandqualities suchascompassionand tenderness.Theacting is restraineduntilshebeginstousehermagic.Thenthegesturesbecomebroader,andsheputsrealeffortintocreatingpixiedustwithherwand.“Neverunderestimatethebenefitofprops,”Miltsaid,andheusedthemagicwandtoenhancetheFairyGodmother’sacting.Inonescene,whileindeepthought,shereststhewand’stiponhercheek.Itisacasualgesturethatagrandmothermightdowithherknittingneedle.ForAliceinWonderland(1951)MiltdesignedandanimatedthetitlecharacteralongwithMarcDavisandOllieJohnston.Carefullybasedonlive-actionreferenceMilt’sanimationhasasimpleelegance.“Idon’tapproveofusingliveaction,”hestatedonce,“but ifyoudealwithhumancharacters,itisnecessary.”HeaddedthatifeverybodyonthemoviewasaMiltKahl,itwouldn’tbenecessary.“Butunfortunatelytheyaren’t,soitisnecessary.”Towardtheendofthefilm,Alicetriestodefendherselfduringthetrial.Shereallycomestolife in these Kahl scenes because of her strong emotions. They range from anger andfrustrationtodisbelief.Duringquickhead-turns,themassofherhairaddsoverlappingaction,andtheanimationfeelslooseandreal.“Neverunderestimatethebenefitofprops.”©DisneyAlicedisplaysarangeofemotionsduringhertrial.©DisneyFortheproductionofPeterPan(1953),MilthadhopedtogetassignedtothevillainCaptainHook,butWaltDisneyhadotherplansandcasthimonPeterPanandWendy.ItwasaroundthattimethatMiltstartedtocomplainabouthavingtoanimatetheno-fun,straightcharacters,whilehiscolleagueswereassignedtoworkonmuchmeatierroles.WardKimball’sresponsetoMiltwas:“Yes,butyouaresogoodatthatboringstuff !”AnimatingPeterPanwasneitherchallengingnorveryinterestingaccordingtoKahl,exceptfor theweightlessqualitywhenhe flies.Fora landing,MiltusuallyhadPeter’supperbodyarrivefirstwhilehislowerbodycatchesupslowly.Theresultlooksbelievable,eventhoughtheideaofaflyingboyisutterlyunrealistic.PeterPan’sfaceisbasicallyacaricatureofBobbyDriscoll,whovoiced thecharacter.Thebodyproportions showanage somewherebetweenchild and young man, and only Milt drew Peter with just the right amount of realisticanatomy.RealisticanimalswereoncemorerequiredfortheanimationinLadyandtheTramp(1955).Miltdesignedallofthedogcharacters,butfocusedonTrampalongwithFrankThomas.The introductory scenes of Tramp—waking up in a barrel, then stretching and taking ashowerunderaraingutter—arebrilliant,arguablysomeofthebestpiecesofanimationMilteverdid.Somehow the audience feels what the character is feeling. His exaggerated yawn isinfectiousandmakesyoufeeltired.Thedropsofwaterfallingonhisheadfeelcold,becauseofTramp’sreaction.Hejumpsforward,thenshakeshishead,chest,andreartodryhimself.Itisthekindofanimationthatgetstheviewerinvolved,emotionallyandphysically.Earlypre-animationcharacterdesignsforPeterPan.©DisneyThisearlyintroductorysceneofTramprepresentssomeofMilt’sbestwork.©DisneyAnotherrealisticassignmentwasinstoreforMiltwhenWaltDisneyaskedhimtosupervisePrince Phillip in Sleeping Beauty (1959). He did his best to bring this character to life, butpretty much despised doing it. The prince’s role in the film didn’t call for any interestingemotionalchangesinhisacting.Hewasjustaniceguywhofallsinlovewiththeprincess;allMiltcoulddowas todrawhiminanattractivewayandanimatehimrealistically. “Not thetypeofanimationyoucangetyourteethinto,”hestated.Themodelsheetfortheprinceshowssubtlestylizationwithincarefullydesignedposes.©DisneyAtleasthehadtheopportunitytoalsoanimatesceneswithKingStefanandKingHubert,whor*quiredabroaderstyleofanimation.Thedegreeofcaricatureonthesetwomonarchsismuchgreater,whichallowedforbroaderactingandmoreexpressiveanimation.HeavysetKingHubertusuallyanticipatesanybigmoveshemakes,beforehisbodymassisset in motion.Without this he would float across the screen. Skinny King Stefan is moreelegant in his animation; any hand gesture is emphasized by the overlapping action of hislargesleeves.KingHubertandKingStefanprovidedachanceforexpressiveanimationandcontrastingattitudes.©DisneyAll animators were relieved when a change came about regarding Disney style. TheanimationdrawingsinOneHundredandOneDalmatians(1961)wouldnotbehand-inkedontocels,butforthefirsttimewouldbeXeroxedinstead.MiltKahlwasthrilledtoseehisowndrawings on the screen, instead of the work of clean-up artists, who he felt oftenmisinterpretedorruinedhisoriginaldrawings.MiltanimatedsceneswithPongoandPerdita,buthismainfocuswasthehumancoupleRogerandAnita.Theiranimationwasagainbasedonlive-actionreferencebutbecauseoftheirgraphicdesigns,themotionfeelslessrealisticandmore interpreted. The shapes applied in their drawings often look like beautiful paper cut-outs,yetwhenAnita takesaseatonacouch,someof theseshapesoverlap inawayarealskirtoranapronwould.Althoughstillbasedonlive-actionreference,thegraphicdesignofAnitainOneHundredandOneDalmatianswasanewdirectionforMiltKahl.©DisneyTheSwordintheStone(1963)offeredmanyrichcharacterparts.Aftersettingthestyleforthe film’s cast,Milt developedMerlin andWart aswell as Sir Kay and Sir Ector. He thensharedsequencesstarringthecomicvillainMadameMimwithFrankThomas.SheturnedouttobeoneofMilt’sfavorites.Acranky,eccentricl*ttlewitchgaveMiltthekindofmaterialhepreferredoverdown-to-earthcharacters.WhenMimintroducesherselftoWart,whohasbeenturned into a bird, she breaks into awild and zany dance that somehowdemonstrates herunpredictability.Miltusesunusualandextremeanglesduringthisscene,whichwouldbedifficult todrawforanyotheranimator.SomeofhiscolleagueswouldsaythatMiltdidthisjusttochallengehimself,othersthoughtthatMiltwasjustshowingoffhisdraftsmanship.MadameMimturnedouttobeoneofMilt’sfavoritecharacters.©DisneyMaryPoppins(1964)requiredamixofanimationandliveaction.MiltKahlanimatedthebefuddledlittlefox,whogetssavedfromapackofhuntingdogsbyDickVanDyke.AllofthecharactersfromTheJungleBook(1967)weredesignedbyMilt,basedonsketchesbyBillPeetandKenAnderson.Exceptfortheelephants,Miltstartedoutdoingsomeanimationonallofthem.Butthefilm’spowerfulvillainwasallhis.ShereKhanisamasterpieceindesign,acting,andmotion.Animationhadnotseenanythinglikethisbefore.AlmostPicasso-esquedrawingsmovinglikearealtiger.Knowinglyornot,MiltKahlmadeahugepersonalstatementhere.HestartedoutbystudyingfootagefrompreviousDisneylive-actionmoviessuchasJungleCatandATigerWalks.ConceptartistKenAndersoncameupwiththeideaofasuave,above-it-all villain.Milt combined thosequalitieswitha caricatureofvoiceactorGeorgeSanders.Theendresultisaslytigerwhoisholdingbackhispowersonlytostrikeattheveryendofthe film. Stripes or spots are notoriously difficult and laborious to track on an animatedanimal, nevertheless they can add tremendous volume and perspective to the animatedmotion.A tiger’s stripes define the exterior of the animal’s body, and inmotion they emphasizedifferentareasofitsanatomy.ShereKhanmoveslikearealbigcat—whenhisfrontfeetmovethroughduringawalk,thelittletoecontactsthegroundfirstbeforethefullpawsetsdown.His back shoulders move up and down drastically, according to which leg is carrying theanimal’s frontweight.His graphic design is extraordinary.You couldn’t simplify a big cat’sbodyanymoretoitsessence.Miltknewaboutthepowerofhisdraftsmanship,sowhenthetigerhitsastrongpose,thedrawingisheldforquitesometime.Onlytheheadmightmoveorthere couldbe just an eyeblink.Thoseposes and subtlemoves are brilliantly composed toconveypower,authority,andarrogance.ThelessShereKhanmoves,themoreintimidatinghebecomes.ThefoxfromMaryPoppins.©DisneyShereKahnisamasterpieceofsubtlepersonalityanimation.©DisneyMilt again concentrated on the human characters forTheAristocats (1970). He animatedMadameBonfamillewithgrace,thelawyerGeorgesHautecourtwithseniorcharm,andEdgarthebutlerwithcomicvillainy.Milt’shumancharactersforTheAristocats.©DisneyThistimearoundMiltdidnotrefertolive-actionforhisanimation.Hisopinionbythenwasthatatopanimatorshouldknowhowhumansandanimalsmoveandshouldn’thavetorelyon live-action as a crutch. The control he exerciseswhen animatingMadameBonfamille isastounding.Herwalkhasjusttherightamountofdelicatebounceandfeelsverynatural.Theold lawyer showshis agewith a kneewobble for each step, but the overall acting is quiteenergetic since he is still young at heart. The butler’s expressions are at times very broad.WhenhefindsoutthatthecatsaretoinheritMadame’sfortune,hisfrustrationissevere.Hemutters“Cats!”andMiltinvolvesthewholefacewhenpronouncingtheword.Firstthemouthopensextremelywide,thencloseswhileeyesandeyebrowsformastrongsquint.“Cats!©DisneyThere are a few memorable moments in the animated sections of Bedknobs andBroomsticks (1971).Milt didn’twork on the famous soccer game (except for designing theplayers), but he was responsible for developing the tumultuous relationship between KingLeonidasandhisassistant,theSecretaryBird.KingLeonidasinteractswithhislong-sufferingassistant.©DisneyKenAndersonprovidedmanysketchesbeforeanimationforRobinHood(1973)began.AgainMiltKahl polished and finalized them.He animated key sceneswith Robin,MaidMarian, Lady Kluck, and Friar Tuck aswell as the rooster Allan-a-Dale and the Sheriff ofNottingham.RobinHoodasafoxisaverydifferentanimalthanBrerFoxfromSongoftheSouth.Foronce, theDisneystylehadchanged fromdimensionallydrawn,oftencartoonycharacters todesigns thatwere influenced bymodern graphics, andMiltKahl hadmore to dowith thistrend thanmost artists at the studio. But the acting had changed, too. These animals oftendemonstrate nuanced, human behavior and the acting is muchmore subtle than in earlierDisneyfilms.BrerFoxfrom1946.©DisneyRobinHoodfrom1973.©DisneyMiltKahl’sworkmethodalwaysincludedpreciseplanning.Beforeanimating,Miltspentalotoftimeexploringallpossibilitiesforascene.Heoftenwouldstareatablanksheetofpaperforalongtimebeforecomingupwithsmallpenorpencilsketchesthathelpedhimanalyzevariousideasforposesandactingpatterns.Miltinsistedthatyouneedtothinkaboutwhereyouaregoingwiththescenebeforeanimationbegins.Figuringoutideasforposesandactingpatterns.©DisneyFor his final assignment at Disney, Milt took on the villainess Madame Medusa in TheRescuers(1977).BeingveryinspiredbyGeraldinePage’svoiceperformance,Miltpulledallthestops. He would later say that he probably had more fun animating her than any othercharacter before.Medusa is an animated force to be reckonedwith—wildly eccentricwhileenormously entertaining towatch.No live-action referencewas used, hermotion is a totalcreation of the animator. Milt also animated her partner in crime, Mr. Snoops, as well asestablishing scenes with the alligators Nero and Brutus. Medusa’s design is so unique andindividual that onlyMiltKahl could drawher. Broad, round shoulders contrast lower armsthatlooklikesticks.Her soft, flabby body allows for a great range of unusual poses. The expressions Miltinventedforherarerepulsiveandwonderfulatthesametime.It is interesting to note thatMilt animatedmost of his acting close-up scenes on “twos,”whichmeantthatonly12drawingspersecondareseenonthescreen,insteadof24.Thatkindofmotiontendstolookalittlelessfluid,butit*urehasacrispsnaptoit.Healsousedamixofonesandtwos,dependingonwhatkindoffeelaparticularmotionshouldhave.MiltKahl leftDisneyStudiossomewhatprematurely.Hewasstill in top formartistically,but his outspoken, critical point of view on the status of Disney animation was met withresentmentandfrustrationbyotherartistsandmanagement.Nevertheless he left behind an unparalleled animation legacy of an extremely highstandard,whichisstilladmiredandstudiedbyfansandprofessionalstoday.HisdrawingstyledominatedDisneyanimatedfilmsfor40yearsandhisdriveforperfectionisinspirationalandintimidatingatthesametime.ThereisnodoubtthattheworkofMiltKahlwillinspireartistsforgenerationstocome.Medusaisananimatedforcetobereckonedwith—wildlyeccentricwhileenormouslyentertainingtowatch.©DisneyPinocchio1940PINOCCHIOROUGHANIMATIONSeq.8.5,Sc.24ThestoryofPinocchiotakesadarkturnwhenthetitlecharactersuddenlyrealizesthatlittlebylittleheisturningintoadonkey.HehadjustwatchedinhorrorastheboyLampwickwentthroughthesametransformation.MiltanimatesPinocchio turning leftandright toshowhisconfusion,endingup inaposewithhisbacktothecamera.Atthatpointthecharacterholdsverystill,whenallofasuddenatailappears.Thatisolatedpieceofactionreadsveryclearlybecausethetailistheonlythingmovingatthismoment.Inrealizinghisescalatingphysicalchange,Pinocchio’sbodystretchesupward.MiltusesthisposeinanticipationforthedownmotionduringwhichPinocchiograbsthetailandholdsitindisbelief.Fromatechnicalpointofview,thisisaverywell-choreographedscenewithshortpauses,just long enough to show the character’s emotion. The audience is left with a feeling ofanxietyandsuspense.©Disney©DisneyCinderella1950THEGRANDDUKEROUGHANDCLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.5.1,Sc.193TheGrandDukeisabouttoleavethehomeofLadyTremaineafterbeinginformedthatnoothergirlbesideDrizellaandAnastasia,whodidnotfittheglassslipper,livesinthehouse.Heturnstowardsthedoorwhileputtingonhishat.Suddenlyfromupstairsavoiceappears:“Yourgrace…”TheDukestopsandlooksoverhisshoulderinthedirectionofthevoice.Thisisashortscene,butfullofpersonality.ItshowsMiltKahl’sabilitytoportrayemotionsduringabriefmoment,whichotherwisemightbeconsideredasecondratecontinuityscene,asceneoflesserimportance.TheDuke’smotionanddialogue“Goodday…goodDAY!”signalsthathehashadenoughoftheseladies.Theslipperdidn’tfit,hehaswastedhistime,andiseagertomovetothenexthouseinsearchofthemysterygirlfromtheball.Miltdrawsatheatricalpose,asthecharacterliftshishatuphigh,beforeputtingitfirmlyonhishead.Hismarch-likewalkshowsdeterminationandannoyance.Itoffersanicecontrasttotheabruptstopthatfollows.©Disney©DisneySleepingBeauty1959KINGHUBERTANDPRINCEPHILLIPROUGHANIMATIONSeq.13,Sc.52ThissceneshowsPrincePhillipasacharacterwhoiscapableofprojectingstrong,evensillyemotions.Hejusttoldhisfather,KingHubert,thathemetthegirlheisgoingtomarry.Phillipthenpicksupthebewilderedkingandswirlsaroundinawaltz-like fashion.Technically thesceneisatourdeforce,whichrequiredaccurateanalysisofthefootworkinvolvedinthistypeofdance.©DisneyThewayPhillipleansintotheactiondemonstrateshiselationaswellasplayfulness.Animated without the help of live-action reference, Milt demonstrates his skills formusically choreographed motion. At the time, the scene was met with some criticism bycolleagueswhoquestioned thebelievabilityof a regularlybuilt personbeingable to liftupsuchaheavycharacterasHubert.Buttheempoweringfeelingofloveenablesthisanimatedprincetodotheimpossible,andtomostaudiencesthescenelookedentirelyplausible.It is interesting to see howHubert’s coatwas shortenedwith blue pencil,most likely toenhancethecomedybyshowingmoreofhispuffyunderpants.©DisneyTheAristocats1970GEORGESHAUTECOURTROUGHANIMATIONSeq.4,Sc.1.1The introduction of Madame Bonfamille’s lawyer Georges Hautecourt is pure delight. Hemightlooklikeheis100yearsold,buthisspiritisyouthfulandenergetic.AfterhearrivesinhiscarinfrontofMadame’shouse,thelawyerturnsofftheengineandremoveshisglovesinrhythmtothetuneheishumming.Motionwise,thereisalotgoingonatthesametime,yeteverythingreadsbeautifullyasawhole.Hautecourt’sheadistiltingfromside tosideashesingsalong,whileeach finger is loosenedbeforeaglove is removed.Thesquashandstretchinvolvedgivestheglovestheappearanceofsoftleather.Thesamecanbesaidabouthisfacewhichisfullofsquishywrinkles.Thehands’movementsaredrawnwithmasterfulprecision,andtheoverallbouncinessofthis performance reveals the character’s optimistic personality. He is in a joyfulmood andreadytotackleanylegalissuecominghisway.©Disney©DisneyTheRescuers1977MADAMEMEDUSAROUGH/CLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.7,Sc.300Medusajustsatdowninfrontofamirrortoremovehermakeup.Sheisirritatedandfuriousbecause thekidnappedgirlPennyhasn’tbeenable to findabigdiamondforher,called theDevil’sEye.MedusaremovesherearringswhensheisinterruptedbyPennyatthedoor.Sheimmediatelychangesherattitudefromangertofalsedelight.“Comein,comei-hin!”Oftenwhenthere isastrongchange inacharacter’smood, theanimatorwouldclosetheeyes,beforeopeningthemwithanewexpression.Thismethodisastandardforanemotionaltransition.ForMiltKahlthisapproachwasn’tgoodenough.DuringMedusa’squickmentalchangeheaddedacoupleofdeliciouslybizarreexpressionsthatstillcommunicateaspitefulannoyance.Theaudiencedoesn’tfullyregisterthesegrimacesatthespeedof24framespersecond,butratherfeelsthecharacter’smadness.Assoonassheaddressesthegirl,Medusa’sattitudeiscompletelyfakeandactedout.©DisneyFrankThomasIn the 1995documentary filmFrankandOllie, FrankThomasvoicedhis frustration,whilelookingbackoverhislongcareer:I don’t think there was a day going by, where I didn’t think I was in the wrongprofession,thatIshouldgetoutofanimation.I’dgetsomadatsomethingthatwasgoingon.PartofthetimeitwasmyowninabilitytodrawwhatIwanted,whichallofushad.Iguesseveryartisthasthatkindofaproblem.Asurprisinglycandidstatementaboutprofessional insecurityfromoneof theworld’s topcharacteranimators.FrankThomasmightnothavefeltconfidentabouthisdraftsmanship,butwhen it came toanimatedactingperformances,he set thebar sohigh thatvery fewartistsevercameclosetothatlevelofexcellence.Frank’scharactersaresoaliveandmoveinsuchanaturalmanner,theyseemdetachedfromanyanimator’sconception,theylivebythemselvesand make decisions on their own. Of course it is extremely difficult to achieve screenperformances of such a caliber, and Frank Thomasworked harder thanmost at the studio,according to his colleague Ollie Johnston. While in the Disney training program, a junioranimator said of Frank: “You just can’t please the guy, he is never satisfied.” Within theanimationindustry,FrankThomasisknownastheLaurenceOlivierofanimation.ForthefirsttwoyearsatDisneyfrom1934to1936Frankservedasanin-betweenerandasanassistant to thegreatFredMoore.Fredhadmadesignificantbreakthroughs in theartofanimation,hisuseofsquashandstretchhelpedMickeyMousetoappearmorebelievableandcharmingthaneverbefore.Frankbecameaseriousstudentofthesenewanimationprinciples,andby1936hewasgiventhechancetodoafewsceneswithDonaldDuckfortheshortfilmMickey’sCircus.CaptainDonaldDuckfeedsthecircusseals…ordoeshe?©DisneyAnotherexampleofearlyThomasanimationisPlutoinMickey’sElephant,alsofrom1936.Plutoshowsstrongemotions,heisannoyedwiththeanticsofalittleelephant.©DisneyFrankThomas’animationforLittleHiawathacaughttheattentionofWaltDisneyhimself.©DisneyBynowFrankThomaswasrecognizedasanewup-and-comeratthestudio,whoshowedrealtalent.WaltDisneyfirsttookrealnoticeofFrank’soutstandinganimationwhenhesawscenesofalittlekidencounteringabearcubupcloseforthe1937shortLittleHiawatha.Thismomentwasbeautifullystagedastheymeetinanose-to-noseconfrontation.FrankstillreliedonhismentorFredMooreforhelpasfarasappealingdraftsmanship,butthenuancedperformancewasallhisown.EventhisearlyoninFrank’scareer,hischaractersmovewithrealweight.Thedegreeofsquashandstretchisjustrightforcartoonycharacterslikethese.And the acting choices reveal that Frank understood and felt their emotions deeply. Hisphilosophyaboutanimatingcouldbesummedupas:experiencethecharacter’s feelingfirst,then worry about the drawing aspect! In other words, it is the acting the audience willremember,thegraphicpresentationtoalesserdegree.WhenitbecametimetocastanimatorsforDisney’sfirstanimatedfeatureSnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarfs,FrankThomaswaschosentobeapartofthedwarfsunit.Heanimated thesectionwhereSnowWhiteorders thedwarfs towashupbeforedinner.Theyall reluctantly leave thehouse for theoutdoor tub, eachwith their own characteristicwalk.AnotherofFrank’ssequencesprovedtobeabreakthroughforanimatedperformances.AfterSnowWhitedies, theSevenDwarfsgatheraroundherbodygrievingthe lossof theirbelovedprincess.Therearetearsonthescreen,andthereweretearsintheaudience.Forthefirst time, animated characters who experience sadness and sorrow deeply affected theviewerslikeneverbefore.Delicatefacialexpressionscombinedwithsubtletimingcommunicatebelievableemotionsofsadnessandloss.©DisneyAfterfinishingworkonSnowWhite,FrankThomasretunedtoshortfilmsfeaturingMickeyMouse.TheBraveLittleTailorfrom1938includesasequencethatisoftenmistakenashavingbeenanimatedbyFredMoore.MickeyisbeingpresentedtotheKingandPrincessMinniesohecantellhisstoryaboutkillingseven(giants)inoneblow.Heenthusiasticallyactsoutthesituation inwhichhe foundhimself surrounded (byhouseflies). “Theywere righton topofme,andthenIletthemhaveit,”hetouts.TheaudiencebelievesthatMickeyisagiantkiller,andahugeovationfollows.ThosescenesarearguablythefinestasfarascharacteranimationgoesforMickeyMouse.ThereisnodoubtthatFredMoorehelpedoutwithmodeldrawingshereandthere,buttheactingshowspureThomasinsightandanalysis.Themotionrangesfromverybroadtosubtleas Mickey exaggerates his efforts in this confrontation. Every gesture and each step thecharacter takes shows believable weight and perspective. The audience is watching livingdrawingsperform.SomeofthefinestcharacteranimationforMickeyMousecanbefoundinTheBraveLittleTailor.©DisneyForthe1939shortfilmThePointer,FrankanimatedMickeyfacingoffwithabearduringahunt.BynowthefamousDisneycharacterhadbeengiveneyeswithpupils,whichallowedforevengreatersubtletiesandemotionalrange.Thecomedichighpoint isMickey’sattempt toexplainhisfametothebearinanefforttobespared.WaltDisney chose Frank Thomas to be part of the small team of animators thatwouldsupervisetheanimationofthecharacterofPinocchio.Frank’sinsightintotheinnerfeelingsofthe living puppet helped to bring him to life during Stromboli’s marionette performance.Pinocchio does his best to perform the song “I’veGotNo Strings,” despite his total lack ofexperienceinshowbusiness.Afteranembarrassingfallonstage,theaudiencestartstolaughat him, but Pinocchio misinterprets their reaction and claps his hands enthusiastically. Thewhole sequence is full of rich charactermoments like this one, informing us of Pinocchio’snaïvegoodnature.Mickeywasgiveneyeswithpupils,allowingforgreatersubtletiesandemotionalrange.©DisneyDuringproductionofthefilm,FrankgavealecturetofellowanimatorsonhowtoanimatePinocchiophysically.Hepointedoutthattheusualuseofsquashandstretchistobeavoided,becausethecharacterismadeoutofhardwood.WhenPinocchiofallsandhitstheground,thebodymassmustnot be distorted during contact, instead he just bounces off the floor. Thisimportantprinciplehelpedtoremindviewersthattheyarelookingatapuppet.Frank Thomas also animated a later sequence in the film, when Pinocchio, now withdonkeyears,returnshometofindGeppettogone.HevowstoJiminyCricketthathewillfindhim, even after finding out that his father had been swallowed by a whale. This is animportant turn in Pinocchio’s character development—he is starting to show a sense ofcompassionandresponsibility.ThelackofsquashandstretchwhenPinocchiofallsremindsaudiencesthatheismadeoutofsolidwood.©DisneyVeryfewartistswereassignedtostartingdevelopmentandearlyanimationforBambi.FrankThomas’talentswereperfectlysuitedforafilmwhosecharactermovementsneededtobebasedonrealism,toadegreeneverattemptedbefore.Thesedeerhadtobedrawnwithreal anatomy combined with tasteful caricature.Walt asked the animators to produce testfootage;itseemslikehewasnotentirelysureifhewouldgettheresultshewashopingfor.FrankdidroughanimationofthesceneinvolvingThumperasheistryingtoteachBambihowtosaytheword“bird.”Intheprocess,Bambimistakesabutterfly,whohappenstoflyby,forabird,andhebeginstochaseitenthusiastically.Afterafewerraticmoves,typicalforayoungfaun, the butterfly lands gently onBambi’s tail. The scene communicates poetry inmotion.The superb animation has elegance and an almost dance-like choreography—Disneyanimationatanewartistichighpoint.Perfectlystagedandanimated,thischarmingscenebecameaniconicimageforthefilm.©DisneyTheveryimportantsequencefeaturingBambiandThumperonicewasalmostcutfromthefilm as it was considered extraneous. Frank argued and fought to keep this section in themovie, knowing full well that this story material offered rich possibilities for personalityanimation. The contrast alone between the two characters couldn’t be greater. Thumpermoves like a professional skater, while Bambi keeps falling over and over again, andThumper’sinstructionsaren’thelpfulatall.Frankanimatedthecomedicanticsofthesetwoina completely believable way. Whether the movement is subtle or broad, there is alwaysweight,andthereforethecharacterslooklikerealcreatures.Todayitisdifficulttoimaginethefilmwithoutthishighlyentertainingsequence.AroughlayoutposeshowsThumper’sconfidenceontheice.©DisneyDuringthe1941laborstrikeatTheWaltDisneyStudiosWaltacceptedaninvitationbytheUSgovernmenttogoonagoodwilltourofSouthAmerica.Accompaniedbyasmallgroupofartists, that trip alsopresenteduseful inspiration for theupcomingproductionof a seriesofshortfilmsbasedonLatinfolkloreandculture.FrankThomaswasamemberofthistravelingcrewastheonlyanimator.Hehelpeddesigncharacters liketheparrotJoséCariocaandthelittle Gauchito with his flying Burrito. Back in Burbank, Frank animated brilliant keysequences for the 1945 short film The Flying Gauchito. The main challenge was how tocombinecharacteristicsofadonkeywiththoseofabirdforthisfantasycreature.SketchesforTheFlyingGauchito.©DisneyDuringWWII, Frankworked on a few propaganda short films likeTheWinged Scourge(1943),starringtheSevenDwarfs,andEducationforDeath (1943),whichrequiredcharacteranimationofAdolfHitler.AfterthewarWaltDisneyreleasedTheAdventuresofIchabodandMr.Toad in1949.Thefilmpresentstwoverydifferentstories:oneoriginatesfromEnglishliterature,theotherisanAmericanfolktale.FortheMr.Toadsection,whichwasbasedonthebookTheWind in theWillowsbyKennethGrahame,FrankThomas’ strongsense forcharacter relationshipscamethroughinthesequencethatintroducedToadtotheaudience.RatandMoleareconfrontingToad in an effort to talk some sense into their friend, who has been ignoring hisresponsibilitiesforToadHall.InsteadhehaschosenalifestyleofcarefreefunasheridesalongoutontheopenroadonhishorseCyril.Thecontrastbetweenthesepersonalityduosisidealforentertaininganimation.Rat is sensibleandserious,Mole is trying tobe,whileToadandCyrilareutterlyirresponsiblewithoutacareintheworld.Rat’sbodylanguageiscomposedandbusinesslike,Toad’sacting showsbroad, theatricalgestures that communicateazest forlife.FrankexploresrangeandflexibilitywithinToad’sbody.©DisneyTheIchabodCranesectionofferedFrankasequencewithanopportunityforall-outtourdeforceacting.Towardtheendofthefilm,afterattendingKatrina’sparty,Ichabodrideshomethroughadarkforest. It isnighttime,andtheHeadlessHorsemanisverymuchonhismindthanks to BromBones’ impersonation of this legendary figure at the party. The sights andsounds of the forest bring out fear and eventually horror in Ichabod’s mind, but there isalways the element of comedy in the way he reacts to the intimidating surroundings. Heswallowsnervously,covershisheadwithhislankyarms,andhangsontohishorsetightly.This is not easy footageto animate—whatever Ichabod’s action might be has to becoordinatedwiththehorse’sswaggeringwalk.Frankdidthisbrilliantly,anditisastoundingtofind out that he animated this sequence at the super-fast rate of 40 to 50 feet per week.Incredible!FrankanimatedthisIchabodCranesequenceattherateof40to50feetperweek.©DisneyWaltDisneysurprisedFrankThomaswhenheassignedhimthevillainousstepmotherLadyTremaineforthefilmCinderella.“Ihadbeenknownforcute,appealingcharacters.Thiswasaverydifferentkindofpersonality.”Frankknewaboutthechallengeitwouldtaketobringthestepmothertolife.Inordertobeconvincing,shehadtobehandledsubtlyandrealistically.HegotsomehelpfromactressEleanorAudley,whosechillingvoiceperformanceinspiredFrankagreat deal. She also provided live-action reference, and Frank incorporated some of hernuanced acting into his animation. Frank later commented on the dangers that live-actionfootagecouldpresent.Ifphotostats(printedframesofthefilmedliveperformance)arebeingtracedblindly,theanimationwilllooksoftandmushy.Actorshaveatendencytoslowlyshifttheirweight fromone leg to theother, something that rarelyworks ingraphicmotion.Theanimatorneeds toedit the live footageandfindanessencewithin theacting.Usuallyposesneedtobestrengthenedandthetimingrequiresmorecontrast.Oftenwholesectionsarenotbeingusedatallbecausetheanimatorfoundbetterwaysforbringingtheperformanceacross.Aclassicvillainfortheages.©DisneyLadyTremaine’ssubtlemovementshelptoestablishhertrulyevilpersonality.©DisneyCinderella’sstepmotherisaperfectexampleofavillainwhobecomesmuchmoreevilandpowerful bymoving very little. Holding a certain pose or a specific expression allows theanimator to show the character thinking.One of LadyTremaine’smost powerfulmomentsoccursearlyoninthefilm,whensheconfrontsCinderellawhilehavingbreakfastinbed.Shesmilinglydeliversanendless listofhouseholdchores;onlyoccasionallydoesshechangeherexpressiontomakefierceeyecontact,reinforcingherimpossibledemands.Aclassicvillainfortheages.Frank Thomas animated a less realistic and much more comedic villainess for the nextfeature filmAlice inWonderland from1951.TheQueenofHearts presented an interestingproblemto theanimator.Howdoyoubalancemenaceandcomedywithinherpersonality?Bothwereneeded,andFrankstruggledoriginallywiththeseopposingqualities.He eventually found a live version of this character while playing the piano with theDisney-Dixieland-BandFirehouseFivePlusTwo.ThegroupwasperformingontheislandofCatalinawhenFrankspottedaheavyset ladyintheaudience.Attimesshewasbrashwhentalkingtoherhusband,butshealsohadadaintysidetoherwhendrinkingacupoftea.Frankall of a sudden had a person to base his new character on. Severemood swings from onesecondtothenextbecameatrademarkforFrank’sbrilliantanimation.WhentheQueengetsangry, she losesall controlandgestureswildly.Duringhercomposedmoments, sheusuallyshowsafake,smirkysmile.FrankoriginallystruggledfindingthebalancebetweenthemenaceandthecomedyfortheQueenofHearts.©DisneyBecause theQueen of Hearts didn’t havemuch screen time, Frankwas able to animateanothercharacter,thetalkingDoorknob.HeinteractswithAliceearlyoninthemovie,whenhis door blocks the girl from following the White Rabbit. His animation is astounding,consideringthatthischaracterisonlyaprop,aninanimateobject.Frankgiveshimafullrangeofexpressions,andontopofthatheisabletomaintainakeyholeforanymouthshapeduringhisdialogue.AfullrangeofexpressionsforAliceinWonderland’stalkingDoorknob.©DisneyTherewasmorethanoneanimatorwhowantedtodrawCaptainHook,thevillaininthe1953 filmPeterPan.MiltKahldesperately lobbied for theassignment.ButWaltDisneyhadFrank Thomas in mind, an animator with outstanding acting skills. Again there were twodifferentcharacterqualitiesthatneededtoworkinunison.Somestoryartistshaddevelopedsequences showingHook as a snobbish connoisseur of fine things, others showed him as aroughpirate.Frankcombinedbothapproachestocreateanentertainingvillain,whocouldalsobearealthreat.Through interactionwithhis sidekickSmee,who is alsohis confidant,we findout aboutHook’smotives.He is driven by his goal to get rid of Peter Pan.HansConried voiced thecharacterandactedoutscenesfortheanimators.Frankusedsomeofthisreferencecarefully,startingwithHook’sintroduction.HeisstudyingamaptryingtofigureoutPan’shidingplace.Thegesturesarebroadwhenheisfrustrated;theybecomemoresubtleascertainideascometohismind.Theanimationneverfeels like it isbasedonlive-actionreference, thefinalactingchoicesweremadebytheanimator.HookislookingforPeterPan’shidingplace.©DisneyTherearemanybrilliantsequencesthatgiveusinsightintoHook’spersonality.Atonepointhe sweet-talksTinkerBell into revealingPan’swhereabouts. For amomentHookbecomesimpatientandaggressive,butthencatcheshimselftochangehisattitudeagain.“Continue,mydear!”Frankwasexcellentatportrayingcomplexmoodswings,heoftenusedirregulareyeblinkstoeaseintothenextattitude.FrankexcelledatshowingHook’smoodswings.©DisneyForthefilmLadyandtheTramp,FrankThomasanimatedimportantactingsceneswiththeleading dog characters.He developedTramp alongwithMilt Kahl. Being a dog-owner formuchofhis life,Frankhadalreadyobserveddoganatomyandbehaviorathomebeforehestartedonthisassignment. Inoneofhismemorablesequences,Trampintroduceshimself toLady, Jock, and Trusty, who are discussing the upcoming arrival of a human baby. Trampinterruptstheconversationandexplainswhatanuisancethisnewcomertothefamilywillbe.Frankplays off the contrast between the characters beautifully. Ladydoesn’t quite knowwhat tomake of this street-smart intruder,while Jock and Trusty do their best to get thispeskydogofftheproperty.Thosescenesgiveusgreatinsightintotheirpersonalities.InthislayoutsketchFrankpositionsthedogseffectivelyasagroup.©DisneyItisnotanoverstatementtosaythatwhenLadyandTrampshareaspaghettidinnerinaromanticsetting,moviehistorywasmade.FrankThomaswastheperfectanimatortohandleasequencelikethisone.Heturnedwhatcouldhavebeenanunappealing,messysituationintoone of the greatest love scenes of all time. Beautiful draftsmanship, subtle animation, andinsightfulactingbroughtthismomenttolifeinawaythatnootheranimatorcouldhavedone.The look the two characters exchange toward the end of the dinner makes everybodybelievethattheyhavefalleninlove.Thescenebecameiconicnotonlyforromanceinfilm,butalsoforthepowerofDisneyanimation.Oneofthemostcharmingmomentseveranimated.©DisneyThethreefairieshaveverydifferentpersonalities.©DisneyFrank teamed up with colleague Ollie Johnston to animate the three good fairies Flora,Fauna,andMerryweatherforthefilmSleepingBeauty.Bothanimatorsdidn’tagreewithWaltDisney’soriginalconceptforthesecharacters.Hethoughtofthemassharingthesamekindofpersonality,somewhatlikeDonaldDuck’snephewsHuey,Dewey,andLouie.OllieandFrankarguedthatcontrastingcharacteristicswouldmakeforamuchmoreinterestingtrio.SoFlorabecamethebossyleader,Faunatakesa littletimetograspasituation,andMerryweather isthemostpugnaciousone.Perhapsbecauseoftheirlessrealisticcharacterdesign,thefairiesareanimatedinalooserstyle than the rest of the cast. Their body shapes and facial features allowed for moreexpressive acting. Some live-action reference was used, but it is not evident in the finalanimatedperformances.FrankhelpedsupervisetheanimationofPongoandPerditainDisney’sOneHundredandOneDalmatians. Even thoughmany animatorswere bynowexperienced in themotionofdogs,adultDalmatiansalongwithafewpuppieswerebroughttothestudioforstudy.Frankanalyzedtheirspecificproportionsaswellasboneandmusclestructure.SketchesshowingtheproportionsandphysicalmakeupofDalmatians.©DisneyHeanimatedcharmingscenessuchasPongoandPerdita’sdecisiontoleavehometogoonasearchfortheirpuppies.Laterontheyreunitewiththeminabarninthecompanyofcows.Onelovelyscenestandsoutwhenoneofthepuppies,havingpositionedhimselfontopofhisfather,slidesdownhisback.ThewayPongo’ssoftskinreactstothepuppy’sweightshowsthebelievablecontactbetweenthetwobodies.Frank also animated the dogs experiencing some difficulties when they continue theirjourneyonafrozencreek.TryingtowalkonanicysurfaceissomethingFrankwasfamiliarwithsincehisanimationofBambiacoupleofdecadesearlier.The Sword in the Stone gave Frank Thomas the opportunity to work on a variety ofcharacters.AcharmingmomentfromOneHundredandOneDalmatians.©DisneyHeanimatedbothMerlinandMadamMim,astheyprepareforthewizards’duel.Mimsetstherulesforthefight(sheactuallymakesthemuponthespurofthemoment).Thosescenesrank among Frank‘s best acting scenes ever. Mim is utterly convincing as she gesturestheatrically.Merlin remains skeptical and adds a rule or two himself. As the two begin tochange themselves into different animals in an attempt to outdo each other,we see FrankThomasasananimatorofactionscenes.Thechaseistimedverysharply,andtheindividualtransformationsareinventiveandentertaining.Anotherhighlight inthefilmwasalsoanimatedbyFrank.AtonepointMerlinmagicallyturnshimselfandyoungWartintosquirrels.Hewantstheboytofindoutwhatlifeislikeforasmallcreatureoftheforest.ThingsbecomecomplicatedwhenayounggirlsquirrelshowsheraffectionforWart.Merlinfindsafemaleadmireraswell,andbothof themdotheirbest toescapetheselove-struckfemales.Thewholesequenceisaboutlove,whichcanbepassionate,silly,ordisappointing.FranklatercommentedthatthesquirrelsectionwasoneofhisfavoriteassignmentsatDisney.Frankwasexcellentat animatingdances, andhehad thechance to show this skill in the1964filmMaryPoppins,where fourpenguinswerepairedwithactorDickVanDyke.Sincethe live-actionfootagewasfilmedfirst,Frankneededtobeverycareful inhisanimationtoavoid collisions between a penguin andDickVanDyke.When the actor’s legwould swingsideways, thenearestpenguinhadtoduckor jumpover the legtogetoutof theway.Onemight think that this could result in awkward choreography, but Frank actually tookadvantageofthischallenge,andtheselittlemisstepsaddedawonderfulandnaturalqualitytotheoveralldance.ThissequencefromTheSwordintheStonewasoneofFrank’sfavoriteDisneyassignments.©DisneyThreeofthepenguinswhodotheirbesttokeepupwithDickVanDyke.©DisneyFrankThomas andOllie Johnstonwere againpaired to develop the intricate relationshipbetweentheman-cubMowgliandBaloothebearinTheJungleBook.After these two charactersmeet, Baloo tries to teachMowgli to behave like a bear. Hechallengeshimtoaboxingmatch.Theboygraduallytakesalikingtothiscarefreebear,andabeautiful friendship begins. Frank animated those poignant scenes, which rival anyrelationshipfromaliveactionfilm.EventuallyBagheera,thepanther,catchesupwiththemtoquestion Baloo’s decision to take care of Mowgli. “And just how do you think he willsurvive?”heasksthebear.Baloo’sresponseishilarious.HemocksBagheerabyrepeatinghisquestion:“Howdoyouthinkhewill…whatdoyoumean,howdoyouthink?”Heisobviouslytickedoff,andFrankfoundjusttherightattitudeinhisanimationtocommunicateit.Baloo,beingupsetatBagheera,respondsbymimickinghim.©DisneyThecharacters’contrastingattitudescommunicateclearlyinthisonesketch.©DisneyLater in the film, Frank animated adeeply emotional scene,whenBaloo is trying to tellMowgli thathe is takinghimtothemanvillage.Thebearstilldoubtswhetherthiswastherightdecisionandheistryingtofindtherightwords,anticipatingMowgli’sreactiontowhatheisabouttoannounce.OnlyamasteractorlikeFrankiscapableofportrayingacharacterwiththesecomplex,conflictingemotions.FrankThomas’animationaddedacomedictouchtothesinistersong“TrustInMe.”Kaa,thepython, tries to hypnotizeMowgliwith the intention of havinghim for dinner. Luckily thetiger Shere Khan interrupts just in time. Frank also animated important personality sceneswithKingLouie,theorangutan.‘The next film, The Aristocats, offered Frank a variety of character assignments. Heanimated the romantic get together with alley cat Thomas O’Malley and the aristocraticduch*ess. The sequence never reaches the originality and entertainment of Lady and theTramp, but the animation is believable and fun towatch. Other characterswho benefittedfrom the Thomas touch were the butler Edgar and the geese. Frank’s most memorableanimationinthefilmisprobablyinthesequencethatfeaturesthecountrydogsNapoleonandLafayette as they try to settle for the night in their stolen motorcycle sidecar. They areconstantlyinterruptedbyEdgar,whoattemptstoretrieveincriminatingevidencehehadleftatthecrimescene.Thetwodogsactlikeanoldcouple,constantlybickeringandfindingfaultwiththeotherone.ThetwocaninestarsfromTheAristocats.©DisneyFrank Thomas admitted that working on the movie Robin Hood was not a favoriteassignment.Therewasn’tacharacterhecouldfullydevelop,insteadhehelpedoutonvarioussequencesthatneededsolidperformances.WhenRobinHooddisguiseshimselfasastorktoparticipate in the archery contest, Frank animated a character acting as someone else.Normallythiswouldbeananimator’sdream,butthestoryartistsdidn’tprovideforthekindof situations that would translate into rich character animation. That being said, Frank’sperformanceofRobinasastorkisconvincingtoanaudience.ThefactthatPrinceJohnaswellastheSheriffofNottinghamatfirstbuyintothemasqueradeseemsbelievable.AconvincingdisguiseforRobinHood.©DisneyReluctantagentsBernardandBianca.©DisneyTheRescuersisafilmwithacastmostlymadeofsmallcritters,andFrankhadhishandinanimatingmanyofthem,suchastheleadcoupleBernardandBianca.MicehadoftentakenoncomedicrolesinDisneyanimation,butthesetwoneededtohaveleadingstarqualities.Theiractingbecamelessmouse-likeandmorehuman-likeinordertocarrytheromanticaswellastheadventureelementsofthestoryinabelievableway.Frankanimatedthecharmingsequence when Bianca chooses janitor Bernard to be her co-agent for the mission to findPenny, theorphangirl.HealsodrewthealligatorsNeroandBrutus,as theychase themicewhilefranticallyplayingtheorgan.Manysceneswiththeswampanimals,includingEllieMaeandLukewerealsoanimatedbyFrank.TheFoxandtheHound(1981)wasFrankThomas’finalfilm.Heworkedonitforaboutoneyear,animatingthepupsTodandCopperastheymeetandplay.It is arguably the one sequence in the film that feels like vintageDisney. Themotion isbelievable,andtheactingisbasedonrealchildren,havingfun.Afterretiringfromanimation,FrankandhisfriendOllieJohnstonstartedtowriteaseriesofimportantbooksonthetechniquesandphilosophyofDisneyanimation.Weareveryluckythat these twomen left their knowledge andwisdom in print.Animation is a complex artformthatinvolvesthestudyofmanythings,somethingthatcanbeconfusingandintimidatingtoanystudentofthemedium.Thesebooksdon’tofferanyshortcutsortricks,buttheyspellout what is involved in becoming a top animator: observing the world around you andinterpretinghumanandanimalnaturethroughyourcharacters.TheyoungTodandCopperfromTheFoxandtheHound,FrankThomas’finalfilm.©DisneyFrankThomas’ownanimationisuniqueonmanylevels.Fromatechnicalpointofview,itisinterestingtonotethatwhenstudyinganyoneofFrank’sscenes,itisalmostimpossibletofinddefinitivekeydrawings—theonesthatframetheactionandtellthestory.ToFrank,everydrawing was important, they were all keys to him. He hardly ever moves into what isnowadayscalleda“goldenpose.”Evenwithinanimportantposition,thereissubtlemovementto keep the animation alive. The motion never stops; perhaps that’s why Frank Thomas’charactersareliving,breathingcreations.TheAdventuresofIchabodandMr.Toad1949BROMBONESANDTILDACLEAN-UPOVERROUGHANIMATIONSeq.7,Sc.36FrankThomashadbeenknownforhisfine,subtlecharacteracting,buthereheshowsthatheisperfectlycomfortablewithbroadactionandcomedy.During the Thanksgiving Party, Brom Bones is in pursuit of Katrina Van Tassel, who isdancingwith IchabodCrane.Brom invites littleTilda toadance, inhopeshecan swapherwith Katrina. Once a dancing item, however, Tilda vehemently resists any attempts to getseparated from her handsome partner. Brom’s frustrated efforts to free himself lead toacrobaticaswellashilariousactions.AshetriestopullhishandfromTilda’sgrip,hisfingerelongates forone frame. It’sawonderfulandsurrealmoment that signals thatBromBonescan’twin;Tildaisimpossibletoshakeoff.Asthescenecontinuesandthemotionescalates,thegirlmanagestostayattachedtoBones,havingagreattimealongtheway.©DisneyTheoverlappingmovementof thecharacters’hairandclothinghelpstomakethis franticdancelookfluidandbelievable.©DisneyAliceinWonderland1951QUEENOFHEARTSROUGHANIMATIONSeq.11,Sc.29ThesefewroughkeydrawingsdemonstratetheQueen’svolatiletemperamentandherabruptmoodswings.During the trial sequence, she startlesAlicewithhererratic reactions.At thestart of the scene the Queen seems pleased: “Yes, my child…” Then suddenly her attitudechangesandshebellows:“Offwithher…[head]”.SheisinterruptedbythelittleKingwhoispullingonherdresstogetherattentioninordertoproposeadifferentpathforthetrial.Frankdraws explosive, seeminglyuncontrolledgestures before theQueen freezes inmidaction. It takes her a moment to realize that she has been interrupted by somebody. Thecontrast in the scene’s timing with its fast and slow bits surprises not only Alice, but theaudienceaswell.Amostunpredictablecharacter!©DisneyPeterPan1953CAPTAINHOOKCLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.11,Sc.4AftercapturingTinkerBell,CaptainHooktriestogainthelittlepixie’strust.HeadmitsdefeatagainstPeterPan.“TomorrowIleavetheisland!”hepromisesinagrandtheatrical, almost campygesture.The scene is effectively staged fromTinkerBell’spointofviewandrequiresHooktobedrawninanup-shot.Particularlyhislastpose,whichshowshimrisingupinperspective,putstheviewerataloweye-level.ThisisHook,theactor,whohasnointentionofdepartingthenextday.Drawingfromthisanglecouldpresentachallengefortheanimator.ForeshorteningHook’selongatedheadisnotaneasythingtodo,butFrankknewthatitwasnecessarytopresentthecharacterinahigh,superiorposition.©DisneySleepingBeauty1959MERRYWEATHERROUGHANIMATIONSeq.7,Sc.12AfterMaleficent’scurseonthePrincessAurora,thethreegoodfairiestrytodecidewhattodonext. Tea and cookies magically appear as the discussion about the evil witch continues.Merry-weathersuddenlybursts:“I’dliketoturnherintoafatol’hoptoad!”Franktakes fulladvantageof thescene’sactingopportunities.Duringthefirstpartof thedialogue,Merryweatherworksherselfintoasquashedpositionwithshouldersraisedandheadlowered.Thisposeservesasastronganticipation for the jumpthat follows.Forasecond itseemsMerryweather turns herself into a hop toad. The chubby fairy’s body stretches as itshoots upward. When completely airborne all her body parts become compressed beforelandingbackonthechair.Thefactthatadropoftealeaveshercuponthewaydownaddsanicetouch.©DisneyTheSwordintheStone1963MADAMMIMROUGHANIMATIONSeq.10,Sc.13.1Inthisscene,MadamMimcontinuestomakeuptherulesaboutwhatandwhatnottoturnintofortheupcomingwizardsduelwithMerlin:“[Ruleone,nomineralorvegetable]…onlyanimal.Ruletwo,nomakebelievethingslikepinkdragonsandstuff.Now…”Mim feels in chargehere and is confident shewill be thewinner of this battle, knowingverywell that she is going to cheat. Her theatrical poses display a sense of the fun she ishaving.Whenpinkdragonscometomind,herhandsgesturewildlytoemphasizethatthosewouldbeforbiddencreaturestoturninto.Drawing-wise Frank,might have struggled a bit trying to get the head angles and handpositions just right, but as always he succeeds in orchestrating an interesting acting patternthat communicates the character’s true feelings. Mim’s emotion here is a sort of playfuloverconfidence.©Disney©DisneyOllieJohnstonOllieJohnston always felt that the characters he animated were living beings. “I neverthoughtofthemasjustlinesonpaper—tomePinocchio,Bambi,andMickeyreallyexisted,”hestatedonce.Itisthatconvictionthatledtoaverypersonalapproachtowardanimation,onewheretheanimator analyzes and eventually identifies with the character’s emotions. Those feelingsbecomethespringboardforwhatthedrawingswilllooklikeandhowtheywillmoveonthescreen.Ollieneverconsideredaparticulardesignstylethatafilmmightcallfortobeadominantfactorinhisanimation.Itwasalwaysthecoreofthecharacter’semotionalstatehewastryingtogettomorethananything.Thatinsightwasthemostimportantthingthatmotivatedhim.“Iftheanimatordoesn’tunderstandwhatthecharacterisfeeling,theaudiencewon’teither,”hesaid.Most young animators tend to overlook this important aspect when trying to createbelievableanimation.Thetemptationtogetstartedrightawayanddrawbeforeanalyzingwhatisgoingoninthecharacter’smind is often too great. But those sceneswill only showgraphicmotion, nicelyexecutedperhaps,butvoidofanyrealemotionalimpactonviewers.ApplyingOllie’sphilosophycanbeagame-changerformanyanimatorswhoareunsureofwhytheiranimationisn’t“comingoffthescreen”likeclassicDisneyfilmsdo.Itmightsoundsimplistic, but when Ollie says: “Don’t animate drawings, animate feelings!” there is aprofoundmeaning to thosewords.The idea is to learnhowtodrawsowell thatyoudon’thavetothinkaboutthequalityofyourdraftsmanshipasmuch,insteadyouneedtofocusonthecharacters’performance.Animatefromtheinsideout,understandandfeelwhattheygothrough.Itisoftenhelpfultosearchamongone’sownfamilyorcircleoffriendsforinspiration.DoIhaveanuncleoracousinwhohasasimilarpersonalitytothecharacterIamanimating?Whatwouldmyuncledo inasituation like thisone?Observingpeople’sbehavior inreal life isatremendousassettoananimator’swork.After Ollie Johnston arrived at Disney in 1935 he was put to work as an in-betweener,whichwas common for any newcomer. It was away for the studio to find out about theyoung artist’s discipline, level of drawing, andwork ethics.After in-betweening on severalshorts,Ollie caught the eyeof animator FredMoore,whowas looking for anewassistant.ProductiononSnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarfswasabouttobegin,andOllieendedupnotonly in-betweening Moore’s scenes, but also doing clean-up work on the dwarfs beforeeventuallyanimatingafewsceneshimself.Olliewasinaweofhismentor’stalent;“Fredjustcouldn’tmake adrawing thatwasn’t appealing.”He also learned that part ofwhatmade aMoorescenelooksoalivewasthefactthatstrongvisualchangesweretakingplacewithinhischaracters. The amount of body mass always remained the same but by treating it like aflexiblewaterballoon,newlifewasaddedtootherwisestiff-lookinganimation.Ollietookfulladvantageofthisprinciplewhenhewasgivenafewscenesfeaturingvarioustownspeopletoanimateforthe1939MickeyshortTheBraveLittleTailor.EarlyworkonTheBraveLittleTailor.©DisneyWaltDisney sawplentyof promise inOllie’swork, and soon theyounganimator joinedcolleaguesFrankThomasandMiltKahl tohelp supervise theanimationof thecharacterofPinocchio.While someof the film’s storyanddesign issueswerebeingaddressed,OlliedidanimationforshortfilmslikeThePointer,ThePracticalPig,andMickey’sSurpriseParty.FredMoore’sinfluenceisevidentintheseearlyJohnstonscenes.Mickeyisonthelookoutforabear.©DisneyThreenaughtywolvescauseallkindsoftroubleforthelittlepigs.©DisneyOllie’sversionsoftwoDisneysuperstars.©DisneyPinocchiomightbemadeoutofwood,butheactslikearealkid.©DisneyOllie’sconceptforPinocchio’spersonalitywasthatofawell-meaning,naïvelittleboy:“AllhewantedtodoispleasehisfatherGeppetto,buthislackoflifeexperiencesgothimintotrouble.Afterall,hehadjustbeenborn.”ThesequenceinthefilmwhenPinocchiocomesto life was animated byOllie, but FredMoore still lent a handwhen appeal and drawingneededtobestrengthened.Another section of the film that benefited from the Johnston touch was Pinocchio’sconversationwiththeBlueFairyinStromboli’swagon.AsPinocchiotriestomakeexcusesfornotgoingtoschool,hisnosestartstogrow,thepunishmentforlying.Theactingissubtlehere;Pinocchio goes back and forth from being bewildered by his nose change to still trying toconvince the Blue Fairy of his innocence. It is clear to the audience that he is veryuncomfortablethroughoutthescene,becausedeepinsideheknowsthatnottellingthetruthisprobablyabadthing.Pinocchio’snosebeginstogrow.©DisneyAmakeupmomentinthe“Pastoral”sequence.Clean-upartistswouldlateraddfloralcoverstothetoplesscentaurettes.©DisneyWhileOllie’s teammatesFrankThomasandMiltKahlmovedover to theBambi unit, hewasaskedtohelpsupervisetheanimationofcupidsandcentaurettesforthePastoralsequenceinFantasia.ThesesexyfantasycreatureshadbeendesignedbyFredMoore,andOlliebroughtthemtolifewithfemininegrace.Helaterrecalledenjoyingtheir“makeup”moments,whencupids apply lipstick and rouge to the girls’ faces.Originally animated topless, the clean-upartistslateraddedfloralcoversinordertoappeasefamilyaudiences.WhenstoryworkforBambiwasfinalized,Ollieandtheotheranimatorswenttoworkandproduced some of the most heartwarming and enchanting animated pieces of personalityanimation ever done. Particularly the motion of the deer characters has an almost poeticquality to it. Because these movements are often synchronized to music, the result lookselegant and balletic. One of those scenes was animated by Ollie. At the beginning of themovie,sometimeisspentshowinghowtheyoungfaunisstillunsteadyonhislegs,andhasdifficulties balancing his steps. Bambi has just fallen to the ground yet again, and all thebunniesexcitedlyencouragehimtostandup.Withallthisencouragementheisdeterminedtoshowthemthatheisverymuchcapableofwalking.Bambi’sbackisstagedtowardcamera,weseehimplacinghisweightonhisleftrearleg,thentherightandleftagain,ashisupperbody rises up. There is definitely some effort that goes into getting up this way. He thenproceedstowalkawayfromcamera,followedbyseveralbunnies.Ifthereissuchathingas“poetry in motion” then this scene is it. Bambi gets into these beautiful poses on specificmusicalbeats.Motionandmusicperfectlycomplementeachother.Bambi’searlyattempttowalkwaspoetryinmotion.©Disney©DisneyOneofOllie’smostcharmingscenesfeaturingThumper,therabbit,iswhenhesuggeststoBambithatclover’sgreenleavesarereallyawfultoeat.Heknowshismotheriswatching,sohelowershisvoiceashetalksintoBambi’sear.Inthissceneheistellingasecrettoafriendina typical childlike manner. Ollie enjoyed animating this type of sincere and entertainingcharactermoment,unliketheupcomingassignmentshewouldsoonreceive.TellingBambiasecret.©DisneyThe trainingandpropaganda filmsproducedduring thewaryearswerenotmuch fun toworkon, according toOllie.But he did enjoy taking on the two leading ladies in the 1943shortReasonandEmotion.Thesecharactersliveinsidetheheadofayoungwoman,andtheyrepresent opposing sensibilities of her psyche. Their design is a far cry from the realism ofBambi, as these twoare cartoony types,withpotential for expressiveanimation.Ollie tookfulladvantageofthisassignmentandbroughtthecharacterstolifewithalotofguts.Reasonis the conservative type, always proper andwell-mannered.On the other hand,Emotion isimpulsiveandfun-loving,butirrational.Thestoryofferedrichsituationsforthesetwofemaleopponentstodisagreeandfightwitheachother.OllieexploresstagingandcontrastingattitudesforthefemalecharactersinReasonandEmotion.©DisneyAfter theendofWWII,Disneygotback to theatrical featureswith the1946musical filmMake Mine Music. One of the short films included was based on Sergei Prokofiev’scompositionPeterandtheWolf.Forthissection,theDisneyartistsdrewcharacterdesignsthatareroundandcartoony,yetthewaytheymovedisplaysagreatdealofsubtlety.Youcanseein Ollie’s animation of Peter and his Grandpa a careful balance of broad movement anddelicateacting.WhenPeteriscaughtleavingthehouseinpursuitoftheWolf,Grandpa’shandgrabsthekidinaforcefulmoveandcarrieshimbackinside.Theforestisdangerous;kidshavenobusinessgoingonahunt.AfterGrandpadozes off, Peter verywarily approaches theoldmanand reclaimshis toygun fromunderhis heavy arms.Thesemovements arehandledwithbelievable posing andtiming:arealkidtryingtooutsmarthisgrandfather.JohnstonfindstherightstagingforPeterandGrandpainthislayoutsketch.©DisneyThefilmSongoftheSouthgaveOllieplentyofopportunitiestoactouthischaractersinthebroadestwaypossible.Dialogue sceneswithBrerBear,BrerRabbit, andBrer Fox requiredrazor-sharptiming.Thekeyposesneededtoreadveryclearly,becausetheywereusuallyheldfor a briefmoment, until a new thought process led the character tomove into a differentdirection.Ollieanimatedtheargumentbetweenthefast-talkingFoxandthemassiveBearoverwhoisgoingtoenjoyBrerRabbitfordinner.Havingbeentypecastinthepastonadorable-typecharacters,OllieprovedonSongoftheSouththathewasperfectlycapableofzany,eccentriccharacteranimation.BrerFoxprovedOlliecouldhandlemoreeccentricanimation.©DisneyThe short filmJohnnyAppleseed from the 1948 featureMelodyTime turned out to be amuch less enjoyable assignment than the exuberant characters in Song of the South. OllierecollectedyearslaterthatJohnnydidn’thaveastrongrangeofemotions:“Henevergotmad,nevershowedanydeepfeelingsaboutanything.”NeverthelessOlliedidbeautifulsceneswiththe character at the beginning of the short film, picking apples while singing a song. Hismovements are based on realistic actions, but there is a light cartoony touch as well.Whenever Johnny jumps, he staysup in the air for a few frames longer than a real personwould, before landingon the ground.This kindof timing adds a bit of elegance aswell asfantasytothescene.OlliegotthechancetoshowhistalentforcomedictimingintheSleepyHollow sectionofTheAdventuresofIchabodandMr.Toad.TheantagonistBromBonesisfuriouswithjealousywhen Katrina starts to flirt with Ichabod. He waits outside her house, ready for aconfrontationwiththeschoolmaster.AsIchabodexits,hesaveshimselfbytakingadvantageofthedoubledoorsituation.Johnnystaysintheairjustabeatlongerthanisrealistic,addingelegancetothescene.©DisneyAfter producing several features that were comprised of individual short films, Disneyreturned to full-length feature story tellingwithCinderella. Theprincipal human characterslikeCinderella, LadyTremaine, andPrinceCharmingwerehandledvery realistically,whiletheKingand theGrandDuke turnedout tobe cartoony types.The stepsistersDrizella andAnastasiafallsomewherein-between.OllieJohnstonenjoyeddevelopingthesetwocomedicvillains. They are extremely spoiled by their mother and take every opportunity to makeCinderella’s lifeadailyhell.Theirappearanceismoreonthehumorousside;Ollierefrainedfromdrawingthemastrulyugly,grotesquetypes,hepreferredtoplayuptheirfunnyantics.One scene, however, was an exception. Toward the end of the film, Lady Tremaine (thestepmother) presents her two daughters to theDuke.After an awkward curtsey,Anastasiaremarks: “Yourgrace.” In this close-up sceneOllie triedpurposely toportrayherasuglyaspossible,sothattheDukewouldreactinarepulsedmanner.WhenWaltDisneysawthesceneinpencilform,hetoldOllie:“Youmightwanttopullthatexpressionbackalittle,shelookshideous.”ThecorrectedscenestillshowsaveryunattractiveAnastasia.MakingAnastasiaasuglyaspossible.©DisneyNot only doesOllie playup the comedy in Ichabod’s animation, but themuchmore realistic BromBones goes through ahystericalroutineaswell.©DisneyIn1952DisneyreleasedacharmingshortfilmcalledSusie,theLittleBlueCoupe.ThestorywasdevelopedbyBillPeetanditdealswiththeupsanddownsinthelifeofanautomobile.Itwasn’t the first time Disney turned modes of transportation into successful animatedpersonalities—thetrainCaseyJr.inDumboandtheplanePedroinSaludosAmigoswereliving,breathingmachines.ButSusiewas the first “thinking” automobile, a true challenge for anyanimator.Ollie Johnston found cleverways to humanize certain auto parts. Thewindshieldbecametheeyes,thehoodwasturnedintoanose,andthewheelsassumefunctionsofarmsand legs. The audience completely identifies with this humanized vehicle, because of thecharacter’s sincereemotions.Susieadoreshernewownerat thestartof the film,but she isheartbrokenatalaterage,whenbeingdiscardedontoasecond-handlotandeventuallytoajunkyard.Theanimator’schallengewastoinjecthumanemotionsintoamachineandmakeitlook entertaining. Ollie animated Susie’s body with surprising elasticity even though it issupposedtobemadeofmetal.Oneofanimation’smostlovableinanimateobjects.Susiewasanimation’sfirst“thinking”automobile.©DisneyWorking on the title character of the filmAlice inWonderland meant a shift for OllieJohnston from broad animated types like Susie to a more finessed and realistic style ofanimation.Live-actionreferencewasfilmedtoprovideabasisfortheanimators’work.OlliefoundthismethodsomewhatrestrictivebecausethemainactingchoicesweremadebyactressKathrynBeaumont.Buttherewerescenesthatdidcall fortheanimator’s imagination.OlliedrewAlicemeeting the talking doorknob,who encourages her to drink out of a particularbottleinordertochangehersize.Onlythenwouldshebeabletopassthroughthetinydoor.Early attempts fail and Alice becomes increasingly frustrated. Emotions like these on arealisticcharacterneededtobecarefullydrawnandtimed.OlliepointedoutyearslaterthatanimatingAlicewasn’toneofhisfavoriteassignments,butthathelearnedalotfromworkingwithliveaction.“Itteachesyouaboutsubtlety,”hesaid.AlthoughOlliefoundworkingwithlive-actionreferencechallenging,headmittedthathelearntalotfromtheexperience.©DisneySmeeisoneofOllie’smostentertainingcreations.©DisneyOllie also animated themore caricatured King of Hearts, who turned out to be amucheasier assignment. Broadly designed as a tiny character and in stark contrast to hismountainouswife,theQueenofHearts,OlliegavetheKingauniquewayofrunning.Hisfeetarenotdrawnatall, insteadthe lowerendofhiscoatpropelshimtomoveforward. It isanonsensical,funtypeofmotion.But itwasOllie’s animationofAlice that impressedWaltDisney, sonaturallyheofferedhimthepartofWendyintheupcomingproductionofPeterPan.SensingOllie’s frustration,WaltchangedhismindandhandedhimSmee,CaptainHook’spiratesidekick.Thischaracterassignment ledtooneof thefunniest,appealingandmost interestingcartooncreationsevercreated.SmeeisbasicallyaniceguywhofeelstheneedtoactmeanonlybecausehisbossisthevillainousCaptainHook.HeevenapologizestoTinkerBellforcapturinghersothatHookcan interrogate the pixie. Smee often acts uneasy and is intimidated by the Captain. OllieJohnstonanimatedhimwithhilariousnervousgesturesandattitudes.Atonepointinthefilm,SmeeoffersHookashave.Unbeknowntohim,heendsupshavingthebacksideofaseagullinstead.Sheerdisbeliefandpanicovercomeshimwhenhefind’sHook’sheadgone.“Inevershavedhimthisclosebefore!”Hishandsquiverashefeelsthroughthewettowelsearchingforthemissingscalp.Hegrabsthetopofhishatandshakesit,notknowingwhattodonext.Thisisanextremelyfunnyperformance,fullofinventiveandsurprisinggestures.Ollie ended up drawingmost scenes with Smee, a character who ranks among his bestanimatedefforts.Comic timingandbrilliantactingchoicesmakehimstandoutasaDisneysidekickwhoworksforavillainbutcomesacrossasalikeableandentertainingtype.ThedogcharactersinLadyandtheTramprequiredthekindofrealisticapproachintermsof theirmovementsnot seen sinceBambi.These caninesneeded towalkand runwith realweight.LadyandtheTramp is a sincere love story,making simple cartoonydesignsoutofplace.Olliedidsceneswithmostofthedogs,includingTrampandLady.OneofhisfavoritedogsturnedouttobeTrusty,theoldbloodhound.Olliesympathizedwiththiswarm,grandfatherlytype, who had lost his sense of smell. Trusty’s very loose skin gave the animators theopportunity toshowthese folds inoverlappingactions,particularly indialoguescenes.OllieappliedstrongsquashandstretchtoTrusty’sfacewhichnotonlyaddsage,butitissimplyfuntowatch.Trusty,theoldbloodhoundwhohaslosthissenseofsmell.©DisneyFor the production of Sleeping Beauty, Walt assigned specific characters to certainanimators.Forthemostpartthatanimatorwouldberesponsibleforthatcharacteronly.Anexception was the three fairies, who often were portrayed as one unit. Flora, Fauna, andMerryweather stand firmagainstMaleficent, help raiseAurora in the forest, and thehappyendingis largelytheirwork.Buttheirpersonalitiesdodifferfromoneanother,whichmadetheminterestingandfuntoworkwith.OllieandhiscolleagueFrankThomasanimatedallofthefairies’importantactingscenes.Withallthreeofthemoftenappearinginthesamescenetogether,stagingandcompositionbecameaninterestingchallenge.Clearsilhouettes intheirposeswereveryimportant,sothatthegroupimagedidnotbecomeconfusingtoanaudience.Luckilythewidescreenformatprovidedamplespacetoplacethesethreeladiesin.FloraandFaunagentlyencourageMerryweathertogivehergift.©DisneyOllieobservestheanatomyandmotionofrealDalmatians.©DisneyThefilmOneHundredandOneDalmatianswasgroundbreakingfor itssketchylookandmodernartdirection, but characters likePongoandPerdita still needed tobe animated theold-fashionedway.TheroutineofbringingDisneycharacterstolifewithdrawingsonsheetsofpaperhadnotchangedatall.TheanimatorsstartedoutbystudyingrealDalmatiansbeforecaricaturingthemforanimation.AroughconceptsketchforthemomentwhenPongofacesCruellaDeVilforthefirsttime.©DisneyAtthebeginningofthefilm,OllieanimatedPongo’sdecisiontopursueayoungladywithherfemaleDalmatian,whohadjustpassedbythehouse.HetrickshismasterRogerRadcliffintobelieving that it is time for awalkby changing the timeona clock.There is a strongsenseofdeterminationtocatchupwiththetwoladies.PongopullsRogeralongwithallhismight,untilhefinallyspotsthemonaparkbench.AfewkeyscenesinvolvingthecharacterofNannyinOneHundredandOneDalmatianswere also animated by Ollie. Visually she comes across as a possible relative of SleepingBeauty’sthreefairies.PongostrainingtocatchupwithAnitaandPerdita.©DisneyNannyissimilarinstyletoMerryweatherfromSleepingBeauty.©DisneyThe Sword in the Stone continued the sketchy visual style thatwas introducedwithOneHundred and One Dalmatians. Walt Disney had been critical of this “unfinished looking”approachtohisanimatedfilms,butmostanimatorsenjoyedseeingtheirownpencildrawingsmove on the screen (instead of inked tracings). Ollie had a lot to do with developing therelationship of three of themain characters,Merlin,Wart, and Archimedes, the owl. Theypresent an interesting dynamic. Merlin puts it upon himself to give young Wart a realeducation.Eventhoughhedoesnotsucceedverywellinthisendeavor,theboyisinaweofthe wizard. Archimedes is actually the smartest of them all and criticizes Merlin’s effortsfrequently.Ollieanimatedmostoftheopeningsequenceofthefilm,whenwefirstseeMerlinasheishavingtroublegettingwateroutofawell.EventuallyWartappearsasheliterallyfallsthroughtheroofofMerlin’shouse,justintimefortea.Even thoughOllie enjoyedworking on characters likeWart andMerlin, he thought thattheir relationship never reached the kind of depth youwould feelwithMowgli and BaloofromTheJungleBook,theanimatedfeaturethatfollowedTheSwordintheStone.WartandMerlinfromTheSwordintheStone.©DisneyApenguinwaiterfromMaryPoppins.©DisneyIn-between those two pictures, the animators were asked to animate characters thatinteractedwithhumanactors.IntheclassicfilmMaryPoppins, JulieAndrewsandDickVanDykesharethescreenwithcartoonfarmanimals,racehorses,andfourcheerfulpenguins.OllieJohnston animated these arctic birds as busy waiters, eager to serve Mary Poppins. Thepenguins’ movements as a group needed to be choreographed carefully, their hectic butenthusiasticactionswouldotherwisecomeoffasconfusingtowatch.TheJungleBook isauniqueDisney film, its storywaskeptextremely simple so that thecharacterswouldhaveplentyoftimetointeractwitheachother.WaltDisneyknewthattheentertainment needed to come from the animal characters’ performances, which left theanimatorswithmore responsibility than usual. PreviousDisney films had beenmuchmorestory-driven,butTheJungleBookreliedcompletelyonstrongcharacteranimation.Thestudioatthattimehadasmallbutpowerfulanimationunitthatcoulddeliverperformancesofthehighestlevel.Forthemostpart,animatorswerehandedoutcompletesequencestoanimate,nomatter howmany characterswere involved. That type of casting resulted in a situationwheredifferentanimatorsworkedonthesamepersonalities.Itgavethemthechancetonotonlydevelopindividualcharacters,butcomplexrelationshipsaswell.OllieJohnstonfocusedonBalooandMowgli,andhealsoanimatedsceneswithBagheeraand the Girl at the end of the movie. Baloo’s introduction in the film is one of Ollie’smasterpieces.Thebear’scarefreenature is immediatelyestablishedbyhison-screensingingand“dancewalking.”Those moves look completely natural and even improvised, yet a scene like this onerequiresalotofanalysisandcarefulplanningfromtheanimator.Thecharacter’sweightshiftsconstantly, arms and legs have separate unique moving patterns, and the action issynchronizedtoamusicalbeat.Thiscomplexkindofmotionmeansthatalldrawingsaredoneby the animator, there are no in-betweens. Every position is unique and important. Ollierecalled thatWaltDisneyhimselfhadactedoutBaloo’sstepsoneday in thehallwayof thestudio.ThatlittleperformancebyOllie’sbossbecamethefoundationforthepersonalityofthebear.FACINGPAGEBaloo’sdancewalkwasinspiredbyademonstrationgivenbyWalkDisney.©DisneyOllieJohnstonagaindevelopedsomeoftheprincipalcharactersforthefilmTheAristocats.Formostofhislife,Olliehadbeenadog-owner,andalotofresearchforhiscanineanimatedcharacterswasdonerightathome.Butwhenhestartedtoworkonduch*ess,themothercat,and her threelittle ones, he proved that he had an affinity for felines aswell. The kittensMarie,Toulouse,andBerliozareeffectivelybasedonrealchildren.Asonewouldexpect,thetwobrothersgangupon their sisteroften,andwhen thingsgowrong the familiarblaminggame ensues. Their personalities come through during a music lesson and when ToulousepaintsaportraitofEdgar,thebutler.Theirbehaviorandattitudesaresincereandchildlike.Althoughadog-owner,TheAristocatsprovedthatOlliealsohadanaffinityforfelines.©DisneyOlliealsoanimatedsceneswithAmeliaandAbigailGabble,acoupleofEnglishgeesewhogiggleconstantly.Watchingthemonthescreen,manyintheaudienceprobablyrememberanauntortwowithsimilarcharactertraits.While thesegeeseneededtomove inanaturalisticway,PrinceJohnfromthefilmRobinHood had to act much more human-like—after all, he was an anthropomorphic lion. HissidekickSirHissmightslitherlikearealsnake,butheisalsoabletogetintohuman-likeposesbyusinghistailasahand.Olliesawthepotentialforrichpersonalitymaterial,andhecreatedtourdeforceperformanceswiththesetwocomedicvillains.Theirfacialexpressionsarebasedon the actorswhoprovided their voices. PeterUstinov is Prince John, a cowardly lion, andTerry-Thomas is Sir Hiss, a sniveling snake. The film’s storymight not come up to classicDisneystandards,butasfarascharacterrelationshipsgo,thisisoneofthemostentertaining.PrinceJohnseeksconstantconfirmationforbeingagoodmonarchandwhenSirHissdoesn’tcomply, physical punishment follows. Nevertheless, Hiss is committed to pleasing his boss,whichmakeshimapartner incrime. Itwas important thatOlliehandledbothcharacters. IfanotheranimatorhaddrawnSirHiss,forexample,theirinteractionswouldnothavebeenasseamless.WhenPrinceJohnactedaggressively,Ollieknewimmediatelyhowthesnakewouldhavetoreact.Olliecapturestheuneasyrelationshipbetweentwocomicvillains.©DisneyTheorphanPennyfromTheRescuers.©DisneyFor the film The Rescuers, Ollie was assigned to several characters. He supervised theanimationoftheorphangirlPennyandRufus,theoldcat.HealsodevelopedthepersonalityofOrville, thealbatrosswhorunshisownairline.Several importantactingscenes featuringthe mice Bernard and Bianca were also drawn by Ollie. This is very diverse group ofcharacters, fromsentimentalandcomic to leading types. It is fair to say thatOlliecarriedalarge part of this picture with quality animation, but also quantity. His most importantcontributionwasarguablydevelopingPennyintoacharactertheaudiencewouldfeelfor.Thisisagirlwhoissadformostofthefilm,notnecessarilyanappealingattitudetowatchforlong.ButthewayOllieexpressedherinnerfeelingstoRufusrevealsthatshestillholdsaglimmerofhopetobeadoptedoneday,andthatmakeshersympatheticandappealing.Ollie’sfarewellanimationassignmentwasforthe1981filmTheFoxandtheHound.Atthattime Disney’s veteran master animators had taken on a second role as teachers to a newgenerationofanimators.Ollie lecturedandgaveadvice toseveralnewcomers to thestudio,includingTimBurtonandGlenKeane.Buthestill foundthetimetoanimateonesequence.Tod, the fox meets Vixey in the forest, and his attempts to impress her result in someawkward,butfunnymoments.BothOllieandhiscolleagueFrankThomasstatedthattheydidnotfeelchallengedworkingonTheFoxandtheHound.Thestorymaterialandthecharacterconceptsweretoofamiliarandremindedthemofpreviousfilmstheyhadworkedon.Itwastimetoputdownthepenciland pursue new interests. For the next few years Ollie and Frank wrote a number ofimportantbooksoncharacteranimationandDisneyphilosophyingeneral.LookingoversomeofOllieJohnston’sdrawings,thereisalottoadmire.Aspecialappealcanbeseeninallofthem,whetheritisaherooravillainwearelookingat.Ollieneverforgotwhathehad learnedfromhismentorFredMoore, thatcharmisan important ingredient indepictingacharacter.Withoutit,theaudiencemightloseinterest.It isalso interesting toobserveOllie’s light touchwithpencilandpaper. It seems likehenevergot frustratedduring theanimationprocess. Justa fewcarefulconstruction lineswithdelicatepencilstrokesontop.Thismeantthathespentlittletimeononegivendrawing,hequickly moved on to the next ones. Ollie Johnston was not only one of Disney’s bestanimators,onmanyfilmproductionshewasalsothefastest.Whatanastoundingtalent!Ollie’sfinalanimationassignmentwasTheFoxandtheHound.©DisneyPinocchio1940PINOCCHIOROUGHANIMATIONSeq.4.9,Sc.21ThesebeautifuldrawingsdefinePinocchio’semotionssensitivelyandwithgreat insight.TheBlueFairyhasreappearedandiswonderingwhyhedidn’tgotoschool.Being lockedup ina cagePinocchio feels embarrassed to face theFairy. “Iwasgoing toschool… ’til Imet somebody.”During the first part ofhis statementhe looks concerned;hedoesn’tquiteknowwhattotellher.But,thefactthathemetsomebodyisactuallythetruth,andhisexpressionchangestoasmile.Forasecondheisproudofhimselfandhisexplanation,sofarsogood.Butmomentslaterhechangeshisangleandreportsthatheranintotwobigmonsterswithbiggreeneyes.Perhapsalittleliewillgethimoutofthisinterrogation.Olliefoundtheperfectuneasygesturetovisualizethedialogue.Pinocchiousesafingertotwirl one side of his shorts. Ollie emphasizes the word met, as Pinocchio leans forwardshowingahintofconfidenceinwhathejustsaid.©Disney©DisneyAliceinWonderland1951ALICEROUGHANIMATIONSeq.3,Sc.22Alicehasgonethroughalotinanefforttotryandpassthroughaminiaturedoor.Whenshereduceshersizehopingshewouldbeabletopassthrough,thedoorknobinformsherthatheislocked. Ollie animated Alice’s frustrated reaction during her encounter with this strangecharacterfromWonderland.Inthisclose-upscenesheslidesherrighthandupherfaceinanattitudeofdisappointmentandannoyance.DuringthisactionAlice’snoseisaffectedbybeingflattenedforashortmoment.Itisaneffectivewaytoshowasoftpartofherfacereactingtothetouchofthefirmpalmofherhand.Thisgivestheillusionthattheaudienceiswatchingafleshandbloodcharacteronthescreen.Asubtlecontactlikethisonemakesabigdifferenceinmakingaseriesofdrawingscomealive.©Disney©DisneyPeterPan1953SMEEROUGHANIMATIONSeq.II,Sc.6AsCaptainHookdeclarestoTinkerBellthatheintendstoleavetheisland,Mr.Smeereactssurprised,butdelighted.ItwashiswishallalongtosailawayandforgetPeterPan.“I’mgladyouagree,Cap’n[hic],I’lltellthecrew.”Smeequicklyhidesthebottlehewasenjoyinginsidethepianoandshowshisexcitementthroughaclappinggesture.Ahilarious littlehiccupfollows,beforehe leavesthescenewiththeintentiontoinformtheship’screw.Ollie’s acting choices reveal Smee’s misunderstanding of the situation, which is right incharacter.JudgingfromthehastywaySmeedisposesofthebottletellsusthathefeelsguiltydrinkingthewineinthefirstplace.Duringthemid-sentencehiccup,hisstartledexpressionissupportedbythestretchofhishat.Inanticipationofhisexit,Smeetakesacoupleofstepsbackwardtogainsomemomentum.Thisisabeautifullytexturedandchoreographedscene.©Disney©DisneyLadyandtheTramp1955TRUSTYROUGHANIMATIONSeq.II,Sc.17Aftertheembarrassingdogpoundepisode,TrustyandJockpayavisit toLady,whoisnowconfined to a doghouse.WhenTramp suddenly arrives he is beingmetwith contempt anddisregard.ItisclearthatLadyisnottheleastinterestedinseeinghim.Trustyofferssupportbytellingher:“Ifthispuss*nisannoyingyou,MissLady…”FollowedbyTrusty:“…we’llgladlythrowtherascalout!”Trusty’sexpressionisfullofdisdainashesaysthelineofdialogueoverhisshoulder.Everyoneofhismouthshapescommunicatesthatemotionveryclearly.Sincethisisanoldbloodhoundwithanextremelysoftmuzzleconfiguration,Olliecould take fulladvantageofthiselasticity.Strongsquashandstretchisappliedhere,aswellascaricaturedmouthshapes.AsTrustyturnsaround,themotionofhislongearssupportstheheadmovenicely.©Disney©DisneyTheJungleBook1967BALOOCLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.4,Sc.126During the “Bare Necessities” song number, Baloo interrupts his dancing for amoment inorder to create a jungle sandwich,madeupof leaves and fruit.He advisesMowgli: “Don’tpickupthepricklypearbythepaw,whenyoupickapear,trytousetheclaw.”Like everything Baloo does, there is entertainment and showmanship in preparing thisexoticsnack.Whenbothofhisclawsholdenoughfood,hearrangesthechunksoffruitasiftheyareplayingcards.Bymixingandcombiningthem,onetalleatabletoweremerges,whichthebearquicklydevourswithgreatease.Allofthesepiecesofactionarehighlyunrealisticandevenillogical.YetOllie’sanimationlooks completely natural and believable. Any of the key poses are drawn within a clearsilhouette,whichmakes iteasy for theviewer to followthe fruitpile’spathofaction, frombeingpickedtoenteringBaloo’sopenmouth.©Disney©DisneyJohnLounsberyWhen Eric Larson screened the opening sequence from Peter Pan for students in histrainingprograminearly1982,aparticularscenecausedquiteadiscussionafterwards.AfterGeorgeDarling unsuccessfully tried to get his children’s attention, he jumps from a seatedposition high up in the air and onto his feet, before ordering thatNana, the dog, be takenoutside where she would spend the nights from now on. It is an unusual and surprisinglybroadpieceofanimationforacharacterwhoneededtocomeacrossasabelievablefathertotheDarlingchildren,Wendy,John,andMichael.Someoftheyounganimatorsintheaudiencethat day felt that the jump looked too cartoony, as it reminded themof the type of actionDonald Duck would perform. Others thought that the scene greatly enhanced the father’semotionalandextravertedpersonality.ThepersonwhoanimatedGeorgeDarlingwas JohnLounsbery,amuch-respectedartistwhowasknownasareservedandhumbleman.Manyofhisanimatedcharactershadeccentric, lively,over-the-top temperaments.Theyranged fromcolorfulvillainstobroadcomedictypes.Johnwasoneofthetopdraftsmenatthestudio,whocouldadapttoanydesignstylethatwasrequiredforaparticularfilm.Hislinesonpaperhadanenergeticquality that expressedhowstronglyhe felt about thecharacters’ emotions.Hewasalsoapatientteacherwhotooktimetogoovertheworkofyounganimatorswhooftensoughthisadviceandexpertise.Johnoftenredrewtheirposestostrengthenthesilhouette,orretimed a scene tomake it come alive.Many newcomers to the studiowould not dare topresentadrawingtotheunpredictableMiltKahl,buttheyknewthatJohnLounsberyinhisquietwayalwaysgaveproductiveadvice.Becauseofhisunfortunateearlypassingin1976thisunderrated, self-deprecating artist never experienced the kind of fame that Walt Disney’sanimatorsencounteredafterbooksabouttheirlegacywerepublished,andwhendocumentaryfilmspointedoutthemenbehindtheDisneymagic.JohngothiredbyDisneyin1935,whenthe studiowas gearing up to produce the enormously ambitious film SnowWhite and theSevenDwarfs. He soonwas chosen to assist established animator Norm Fergusonwith hisanimation. “Fergy,” ashewas calledbyhis colleagues,hadbecomeanexpertonanimatingMickeyMouse’sdogPluto.In the 1934 short filmPlayfulPluto, Fergy animated the dog trying to free himself fromstickyflypaper.Atacertainpoint,Plutolooksdirectlyintocamera,allowingtheaudience toparticipateinhisthoughtprocessanddecision-making.Theseanimateddrawingsshowedthecharacterthinking,beforehetookactiontryingtoridhimselfoftheglueypest.Thescenewasan importantexample toyoungeranimators forproving thatmereactionwasn’tenoughtobring a personality to life; the character had to think in order to become believable to anaudience.FergyanimatedthescaryWitchinthefeatureSnowWhite,andLounsberystudiedthosescenescarefullyashewasdoingassistantworkonthem.Afterawhile,Fergyfeltitwastimeforhisstudent takeonhisownpieceofanimation.HehandedLounsberythescene inwhich the old Hag goes down a trap door as she cackles gleefully, “Buried alive,” inanticipationofherevilplantokillSnowWhite.Thiswasn’taneasyscenetoanimate.Thereisthemaindownwardaction, she isaddressingherdialogue to the left-behindraven,andherlaughmakesherbodyshiver.Thisaffectsthemotionofherleftarm,whichisholdingthetrapdoor.ThosepartsneededtomoveerraticallytocomplementtheWitch’slaugh.AcoupleofkeydrawingsshowthepotentialinyoungJohnLounsberyasananimator.©DisneyAfterSnowWhitewascompleted,JohngotthechancetoanimatePlutoinshortfilmssuchasSociety Dog Show andThe Pointer. At that time Fergy still supervised those scenes andsubsequently influenced the young animator. Lounsbery’s use of strong squash and stretchwithin loose,boldactionwasadirect resultofhismentor’s tutoring.The twomenworkedvery well together, and by the time production began on Pinocchio, Fergy requested thatLounsberyjointheunitthatwouldanimatethefox,HonestJohn,andhispartnerincrime,thecatGideon.Fergusonhimselfdidnot animateon the film, insteadhe servedasoneof four sequencedirectors.Inthisnewcapacityhehelpedshapethestorymaterialforthesetwovillains.Severalanimatorswereresponsibleforanimatingthefoxandthecatthroughoutthefilm,butLounsberydrewtheirintroductoryscenes.AsPinocchiohopsalongonhiswaytoschool,hecatchestheeyeofHonestJohn,whoisastonishedatwhathesees:“LookGiddy,look!It’samazing,alivepuppetwithoutstrings.”HonestJohnandGideonhavetheireyessetonPinocchio.©DisneyThese two crafty, contrasting characters needed to performwith theatrical showmanship.OftenthefoxbecomesanactorashetriestopersuadePinocchiotoforgetaboutschoolandjoinshowbusinessinstead.Heistryingtobeconvincing,andhisposesaregrandandoverthetop.Thecatusuallyagreeswithwhateverthefoxissaying,eventhoughmoreoftenthannotGideondoesn’t have a cluewhat’s going on.As they interactwith Pinocchio they formanirresistible trio, and the most bewildered misunderstandings become highly entertaining.When working with campy, exaggerated poses, it is of utmost importance that they readclearlytotheviewer.Theessenceofathoughtormoodmustbefound,whichalwaysrequiresagoodsilhouettewithinapose.Thewaythecharactergetsinandoutofsuchaposebecomesan important factor for a successful performance aswell. Usuallythe timing between heldposes is quick and smooth. Lounsbery had learned these principles from studying Fergy’swork and applied that knowledge to great advantage. As far as good draftsmanship wasconcerned,hewouldsoonsurpasshismentor.FergyandLounsberyworked togetheragainonFantasia’s “Danceof theHours” section.Fergusonco-directedthesequence,andJohnwasputinchargeofdevelopingthepersonalityof Ben Ali Gator, who becomes love-struck with his dance partner, Hyacinth Hippo. Thishilariousrelationshipofferedanumberoftrulymemorablecharactermoments.Thereare12ballet-dancingalligators,butonlyBenAlistandsoutasadefinitivepersonality.Asthegatorssurround the sleeping hippo, he shows up late, way up high on the columns. Lounsberyanimatedhisentrancewithasillywalk,followedbyaflusterofarmgesturesashediscoversthesleeping“beauty”below.Fromthatmomentonnothingcanstophimfrompursuingtheobject ofhis affection.His eyes flutter in adoration, andheplaceshishandsoverhisheart.Hyacinth awakens and takes off, but her body language says “Come and getme!”After ahilariouspasdedeux,anenergeticchaseensues,andeventuallytheothergators,hippos,andotheranimalsgetinvolved.LounsberyanimatedBenAliasaprofessionaldancer.Gonearethegoofymovesfromhisearlyscenes,fortherestofthesequencehedanceswithstyleandgrace.Hisrelativelyskinnybodybendsandturns in themostunexpectedways,butalwaysendingup ina flamboyant,theatricalpose.This is theworkofa staranimator,who impresseswith technical expertise,musicality, and outstanding draftsmanship. Lounsbery stated in an interview howmuch heenjoyedgettingallthegator’sdancebusinessacross,insynctothebeatofPonchielli’smusic.BenAliGatorhasallthestyleofaprofessionaldancer.©DisneyDumboexperiencestheeffectsofchampagne.©DisneyEvery great animator has a range; he is able to take on a number of different characterassignments.Lounsberyhadshownthathehadafeelforexaggerated,vaudevilliantypes,buthis next role would demand a whole different set of emotions. John was promoted tosupervisinganimatoronthemovieDumbo,whereheendedupworkingonthetitlecharacter,along with several other animators. One of the sections he worked on takes place afterTimothy,themouse,andDumboreturnfromavisittoDumbo’simprisonedmother.Thelittleelephant’swalk feels heavy, and a few tears are rolling down his cheeks. Timothy tries tocheeruphisfriend,whosounjustlygotseparatedfromhismother.SuddenlyDumbogetsthehiccups.Thesebeautifullyanimatedburstsaddsomelightheartedcomedy in thisoverall sadsituation.With eachhiccup,Dumbo’shead jolts abruptlywhilehis trunkand large ears areanimated in overlapping action.But it is the expressions Lounsbery draws thatmake thesescenes so charming.Dumbo’s eyes openwide in surprise before settling. Timothy suggeststhatdrinkingsomewaterwillhelptheelephant’scondition,butbyaccidentDumboendsupsippingchampagneinstead.Thehiccupscontinue,andhisexpressionsbecomemoreandmorehilarious.Lounsberyinjectssomuchappealintothesescenes;asamatteroffact,heprobablydrewthecharacterbetterandwithmorecharmthantherestoftheanimators.Asthestorycontinues, Dumbo starts producing large champagne bubbles, which leads into the famous“PinkElephantsonParade”sequence.LikemostanimatorsatDisney,duringtheSecondWorldWar,JohnLounsberywascastonpropaganda films like Victory through Air Power andChicken Little. The postwar featureMakeMineMusicincludedtheshortfilmPeterandtheWolf.JohnwasinchargeofdevelopingthefrighteningWolf.Thecharacter’sappearanceiscartoony,asistherestofthecast,butthereisnodoubtthatthisisaviciouscreature,whopresentsagreatdangertoPeterandhisfriends.SomeoftheWolf’sclose-upsareveryeffectiveinshowingthisvillain’sbadintentions.EnormousteethanddroolingsalivaenhancetheWolf’shorrifyingpersonality.©DisneyTheanimalcharactersinSongoftheSouthwereplayedforcomedy,eventhoughBrerFoxandBrerBearcouldbeathreattolittleBrerRabbit.Likeeverybodyinvolvedwiththisfilm,John enjoyedworkingwith these eccentric characters verymuch. Among other scenes, heanimatedthesectionfollowingthecaptureofBrerRabbit inasaplingtrap.Thebearcomesalongandinquiresaboutthenatureofthisoddsituation,whenthecleverrabbitconvinceshimto takehis place as a kindof a scarecrow.The contrast between thesepersonalities offeredJohnuniquewaysoftimingthecharacters’actingpatterns.Therabbitisquickandenergetic,whilethebearmovesveryslowly.BrerRabbitpersuadesBrerBeartotakeonhisjob.©DisneyJohn’s next character required startling and unexpected type of movements. Willie theGiantisthevillainintheMickeyandtheBeanstalksectionfromthefeatureFunandFancyFree.Hehasmagicalpowersthatallowhimtoturnhimselfintoanytypeofcreature.Duringhisopeningsonghecomesacrossasajolly,almostlikeablegiant,untilhediscoversMickey,Donald, andGoofy.He locks themup in a box, exceptMickey,whonarrowly escapes, butonly to find himself trapped in the Giant’s shirt pocket next to an oversized snuffbox. Inreactiontothesnuff,Mickeycan’thelpbutsneezeoutloud.ThetobaccoreachestheGiant’snose, and he immediately reacts with several abrupt inhales. Just when the audienceanticipates a giant size sneeze, John instead animates the silliest reaction.Willie’s face goesthroughacoupleofquickdistortionsaswehearafunny,littletwang.Thescenealwaysgetsabiglaughfromtheaudience,becausenogiantissupposedtosneezelikethis.Anotsogiant-sizesneezefromWillie.©DisneyAfter Fun and Fancy Free, Walt Disney was not quite ready yet to restart producingfeature-lengthfilms,thewarhadseverelyinterruptedthestudio’sflowof income.Insteadafewmoreso-calledpackagefilmsfollowed.Thesefull-lengthmovieseachcontainedanumberofshortsubjects,whichwerefairlyinexpensivetomake.JohnworkedonseveralscenesforMelody Time and The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad, before joining the team ofanimatorsthatwouldfinallyre-establishthefull-lengthDisneyanimatedfeaturefilmwiththestoryofCinderella.Thefilm’scastofcharactersrangedfromrealistictocartoonyinconceptanddesign.Lounsberysteeredawayfromsubtlehumanpersonalities; insteadheanimatedanumber of broad, expressive characters.When themice Jaq andGus try to locate clothingitemsthatwouldbeusefulforcreatingapartydressforCinderella,theyrunintoLucifer,whois asleep on a footstool. An outrageous sequence begins in which they outwit the catrepeatedly,andsneakarolloffabricandabeadnecklacebytheevilfeline.ThissectionofthefilmwasdirectedbyWilfredJackson,whoworkedverycloselywithJohnonthetimingandthesuspenseofcertainmoments.Theaudienceisledtobelievethateventuallythecat,whoisnotstupid,willoutsmartandcatchthemice,butinsteadJaqandGusdosucceed,barely.Theanimationisflawless.Thequick,erraticmovementsofthemicearecontrastedbytheheavy,slow-moving cat, who only commits to a chase when he believes themice are within hisreach.JaqandGusneedtooutsmartLuciferinordertocollectclothingitemsforCinderella’sdress.©DisneyLounsberywasalsoresponsiblefortransformingahorseintoacoachmanandadogintoafootmanduringtheFairyGodmothersequence.Eachanimalismagicallyliftedintheair;theybounceexactly three times, insyncwith the lyrics, “bibbidi,bobbidi,boo,”before takingontheirhumanform.Thesemusicalandvisualrhythms,combinedwithstunningspecialeffects,give the scene extraordinary beauty. John Lounsbery continued animating non-realisticcharacters for the filmAlice inWonderland, where zany, oddball types could be found inabundance.Hejoinedasmall teamofartistswhobroughtthesmokingCaterpillarto life. ItwasJohnwhoanimatedthefamouslinewhenheencountersAlice:“Whoareyou?”Witheachexhalethesmokeformsaletter, inthiscase:O,R,andU.Lounsberyanticipateseachmouthshapeveryeffectively.Forexample,beforehismouthformsan“O”fortheword“who”hislips are relaxed, then come forward to illustrate that sound. This makes for smooth andconvincingdialogueanimation.Bruno,thedogandMajor,thehorsebegintheirmagicaltransformation.©Disney“Whoareyou?”©DisneyTheMadHatterexplainstoAlicewhatanunbirthdayis.©DisneyWardKimball had startedwork on theMad Tea Party sequence, but he needed help tofinish*t.JohntookonanumberofscenesfeaturingtheMadHatter.TheyturnedouttolookandfeelindistinguishablefromKimball’sversionofthatcharacter.Zany,unpredictableactingcameeasytoLounsberyandKimballcouldn’thavefoundabettercollaborator.Another character John animated for the film turned out to bemore subtle but equallyfantastical.TheRedRoseconductedachoirofflowersperformingthesong“AllintheGoldenAfternoon.” She turned out to be more sympathetic toward Alice and interacted with herwithouthostility.Tobringaflowertolifewithhumancharacteristicsprobablysoundslikeadifficult assignment, but her design already suggested a definite female type. A friendlyhumanfacewasdrawninthecenterof theblossom,andtwigsandleafsmadeupherarmsanddress.Still, thisroseneededtomove inarestrictedmanner.Theaudienceshouldneverassumethatshewouldbeabletotakeafewstepsandwalklikeahuman.Motionislimitedtoherupperbodyonly.ThefriendlyandsympatheticRedRose.©DisneyDisney’s next film, Peter Pan, had an almost all-human cast, with only a few eccentricpersonalities.OneofthemwasGeorgeDarling,asomewhattypicalVictorianfatherwhowasstrictandtemperamental,butverymuchinlovewithhisfamily.JohnLounsberyanimatedallofhisscenesatthebeginningofthefilm.Whatcouldhavebeenasecondarycharacterinthehandsof a different animator became the comic center of theDarling family.Hadhebeenhandledasarealistic,conventionalfatherfigure,thisfamilywouldcomeacrossasboringtoan audience. But because of Mr. Darling’s frustrations and emotional outbursts we enjoywatchinghimaswellashisinteractionwithfamilymembers.Duringhisfirstsceneheentersthechildren’snurseryinsearchofhistuxedocufflinks.Heeventuallylooksunderabedsheettoinsteaddiscoverhiswhiteshirtfront,withsomekindoftreasuremapdrawnalloverit.Heliftsituphigh,expressinghorroranddisbelief.ThisisoneofmanyLounsbery’sscenes,whichis very dramatically staged, but because of solid draftsmanship, still fits in with the morerealisticcharactersinthesequence.Becauseofhisoutgoingpersonality,Mr.DarlingbecomesthemostengagingcharacterinthissequencefromPeterPan.©DisneyThe fact that John also drew sceneswithWendy,Michael, andCaptainHook proves hisversatility as an animator. A few wonderful assignments were coming John’s way whenproductionbeganonDisney’sfirstwidescreenanimatedfilmLadyandtheTramp.Thiswideformatpresentednewchallenges,particularlyforlayoutartistsandanimators.Theextendedhorizontal screen required a much wider representation of environments, while animatorsneededtofilluptheextraspacewithmorecharacters.Inclose-upscenes,asingledrawingofadog’sheadwouldoftenlookisolated.Oneortwootherdogsneededtobeaddedinordertopresentapleasingcomposition.Allthismeantmorework,butalsoadditionalcosts.WaltDisneywasverymuchawareofLounsbery’scomedicstrengths,andhecasthimonTonyandJoe,twolivelyItalian-Americanswhoruntherestaurantthatbecamethebackdropfor the most romantic scene in animation. Tony is the proprietor, a large figure with biggesturesthatcommunicatejoyaswellasanger.Joeisthechef,whoismuchsmallerinsizebutequallyexpressive.Onesceneinparticularbecameahighpointthattypifiestheirrelationship.WhenTrampshowsupattherestaurant’sbackentrancebyhimself,TonyordersJoetobringout some bones for the dog. Then Lady appears from behind a food container.When Joereturnsfromthekitchenwithabowlofbones,TonyreactsinavolatilemannerashekicksthebowloutofJoe’shands:“What’samatterforyou,Joe…Ibreak’ayourface.Tonight’abutch,hes’agettathebest’ain’ahouse.”JohnLounsberyfeltthesepersonalities.Hisanimationshowsthesamepassionthatthesetwocharactersdisplay.Tony’swildgesturingcomesacrossasanaffectionatesatireofItalianarticulation.Greatactingchoices,phenomenaldraftsmanshipandbelievablemotionmakeTonyandJoetrulymasterfullyanimatedcreations.Lounsberywassoattuned to this assignment that he impressed and surprised his fellow animators with hisastonishingpersonalityanimation.TonyserenadesLadyandTramp.©DisneyJohnalsoanimatedkeysceneswiththeEnglishbulldogBull,who,alongwithotherdogs,befriends Lady in the dog pound. Bull’s facial features are loose and rubbery, which isperfectlyappropriateforthistypeofdog.Everyoneofhisdialoguescenesareajoytowatch,becauseofunusualmouthconfigurations,andgutsyoverlappingactionofcheeksandlips.Bull’sunusualmouthconfigurationhelpedtocreateentertainingdialoguescenes.©DisneyWhenLadyandTramptrytovisitthelocalzooinordertoseekhelpfromabeaver,theyfindapolicemanguardingtheentrance.Trampengagesapassingprofessorinafightwiththepoliceman,soheandLadycanslip intothezoo.Lounsberyanimatedthisspiritedsequence,which involved physical interaction, since the two characters fought and argued with oneanother over the issuewho this dog (Tramp) belongs to. Strong use of squash and stretchhelpedtokeepthisaltercationlivelyandentertaining.TheprofessortriesunsuccessfullytoconvincethepolicemanthatheisnotTramp’sowner.©DisneyKingHubertbrandishesanunusualweaponduringhisdisagreementwithKingStefan.©DisneyTheshiftinstylefromLadyandtheTramptoSleepingBeautywassignificantinmanyways.Disneycharactersdidnotappearasdimensionalfigures,insteadflatgraphicshapesmadeuptheirdesign.JohnLounsbery’sdrawingstyleofKingHubertandKingStefandidnotexactlymatchthesophisticatedlookMiltKahlbroughttothesequenceinwhichbothcharacterstoasttothefutureoftheirchildren.ButbythetimeJohn’ssceneswerecleanedupandtracedontocels,thedifferencesbecameveryminimal.MiltKahlanimatedthefirsthalfofthesequence,whenbothkingslifttheirglassesinfriendship.Johntakesoverasanargumentdevelopsoverthe possibility that Prince Phillip and Princess Aurora might not like each other whenintroduced.This was smart casting since Kahl excelled at nuanced subtle performances, whileLounsberypreferredoutgoing,extravertedacting.Johnalsoenjoyedanimatingafewclose-upscenesfeaturingthepig-likegoon.Hisfacewasperfectforbroaddialogueshapesanddistortionsthroughouthishead.John’sworkononeofMaleficent’sgoons.©DisneyTheflatgraphicstylingofDisneycharacterscontinued,as thestudiobeganworkonOneHundredandOneDalmatians.BythistimeLounsberyhaddoneenoughworkapplyingthenewapproachtodrawingthathisanimationofCruella’shenchmenJasperandHoracefitrightintotheoveralllookofthefilm.Live-actionreferencewasfilmedforeveryhumancharactertoaid theanimators in theiranimatedperformances.Yet it is interesting tonote that,whileRogerandAnitaoftenshowtracesoflive-actioninthefilm,JasperandHorace’soriginsseemtobetheanimator’simaginationentirely.ThisspeaksforthewayJohnmadeuseofthelive-action reference. He was able to take the actors’ ideas for certain scenes, but madeconsiderablechangesinordertoproducebelievabledrawnpersonalityanimation.Lounsberypunchedup the timing, hewould strengthen the keyposes andpush the feelingofweight.WhenJasperandHoraceengage inaconversationwithNannyat theRad-cliffs’ frontdoor,theypretend tobe fromtheelectriccompanyandneedaccess to thehome.Their facesareanimated with great elasticity as their mood changes from false politeness to sincereannoyance,whenNannyrefusesthementry.JasperandHoraceBadunfromOneHundredandOneDalmatians.©DisneyJohn also supervised the animation of the Colonel, a befuddled but likeable Englishsheepdog,who acts as the self-proclaimed leader of the small group of farm animals, thatincludesthecatSergeantTibsandthehorseCaptain.TheColonel’seyesarecoveredbylonghair, which presents a challenge to the animator. How can specific expressions be drawnwithoutshowingeyes?Johndivided thedog’s tophair into twopartsandanimated themaseyebrows.Togetherwith the flexiblemouthunithewasable todrawanyattitude thatwasrequiredduringhisperformances.TheColonelpresentedthechallengeofhowtoshowexpressionwithoutvisibleeyes.©DisneyOnthe1963filmTheSwordintheStone,LounsberyagainfollowedMiltKahl’sleadwhenanimatingMerlinandSirEctor.Milt’sdraftsmanshipprovedachallengetomatch(especiallythewayhedrewhands),andJohn’sgraphicversionofthesecharactersdifferslightly,buttheperformances are solid and believable. When John had the chance to animate a characterwithoutKahl’sinput,hisanimationfeelslooserandmorepersonal.Duringthewizards’duel,MadamMimchangesherselfintodifferentanimals,includingachickentryingtogettoMerlinasaworm,andarhinoceroswhooverpowersMerlinasacrab.Mimasachickenisinsanelyexcitedbecauseshethinksshehastheupperhand,untilMerlinasawalrusfallsfromtheskyon topofher.Asa rhinoshe is confident thatherheavyweightwill smashMerlin,but themagicianturnshimselfintoagoatandkicksMimdownaledgeintothewater.Mimasachicken…©Disney…andasarhino.©DisneyFollowingThe Sword in the StonewasThe JungleBook,which turned out to be the lastanimated filmWalt Disney supervised. By that time the group of directing animators hadshrunk to only four: Milt Kahl, Ollie Johnston, Frank Thomas, and John Lounsbery. Otheranimatorshadeitherleftthestudioortheyfunctionedinnon-supervisoryroles.Neverthelessthe movie became one of the studio’s major hits, particularly in Europe. John got theassignmentofanimatingColonelHathiandhisherdofelephants.Everycharacterinthisfilmis beautifully developed as a character, andHathi is no exception.He is amember ofHerMajesty’s Fifth Pachyderm Brigade, and therefore demands respect and military readiness.Lounsberywasinhiselementbringingthisoversizedpersonalitytolife.Justthewayhewalksduring the march as well as during inspection has so much character. He is an old-schoolmilitarytype,andeventhoughheispasthisprime,militarydrillstillrunsthroughhisveins.Johnmadegreatuseofhislooseskinaroundhisneckduringdialoguescenes.Evenhistusksareinvolvedwhenhetalks,andarepartoftheoverallfacialsquashandstretch.(Intheorythisgoesagainstrulesofanatomy,sinceanelephant’stusksareconnectedfirmlytohisskull,nothisflexiblejaw.)TheretiredColonelstillretainshismilitarybearing.©DisneyTothedismayofhisherd,Hathire-recitesthestoryofwhenhereceivedaspecialmilitaryaward: “Itwas then I received theVictoriaCross forbraveryaboveandbeyond the call ofduty.Ha,ha,discipline,disciplinewasthething!”Hisslowwalktowardcameraduringthelineis one of the best animatedpersonality locomotions ever.He looks extremely pleasedwithhimselfasherotatesalegoutward,beforeslammingittotheground,paralleltotheoppositeleg.JohnLounsberyenjoyedbringingColonelHathi’soversizedpersonalitytolife.©DisneyAfter The Jungle Book’s success, the studio continued producing lighthearted animatedcomedieswithproductionslikeTheAristocatsandRobinHood.LounsberywasagainassignedtoanimatingcharactersthathadbeendesignedanddevelopedbyMiltKahl.HedrewsceneswiththebutlerEdgarandthelawyerGeorgesHautecourtforTheAristocats.GeorgesHautecourtandEdgarfromTheAristocats.©DisneyTheSheriffofNottinghamcollectstaxmoneyfrominsideOtto’scast.©DisneyForRobinHood, Johnanimatedscenes that involved theSheriffofNottinghamandOtto,thehounddog.The animation on those last assignments is very good, but somehow John felt he wasworkingintheshadowofMiltKahl,whowasstillgiventheopportunitytoexpresshisownstylewhenitcametodevelopingnewDisneycharacters.(AsMiltputit:“IWAStheDisneystyle!”)BecauseJohnwassowell-likedaroundthestudio,andthefactthatheenjoyedmentoringyoung artists led to the decision tomakehim a co-director on the next film,The Rescuers.Lounsberymissed the drawing board though, and had hopes to return to animating in thefuture. Unfortunately his untimely death prevented this from happening. Today manyanimation students gravitate toward studying Lounsbery’s vast body ofwork.His comedicacting and his fine drawing abilities combinedwith his bold use of squash and stretch areworthy of close investigation. John himself would be flattered by all of this attention. Hestatedmodestlytowardtheendofhis life:“I justworkedhardandkepttryingtobecomeagoodanimator.”Pinocchio1940HONESTJOHNANDGIDEONROUGHANIMATIONSeq.3,Sc.45.2Inmost cases two characterswho share a scene are drawn on different levels, unless theytouch,inwhichcasetheyaredrawnonthesamesheet.GideonistryingdesperatelytofreeHonestJohnfromtheawkwardpredicamenthehadputthefoxin.Thescenedescriptionintheanimationdraftreadslikethis:EXT.CU–CATbitingfingernails–timidlyreachesup–liftslidofhat–Foxyells:“GETMEOUTOFHERE!”Catscared,closeslidofhat–patsit–thengetsbrilliantidea.Thiskindofascenecallsforbroadstagingoftheposesaswellascrisptiming.LogicgoesoutthewindowwhenHonestJohnattemptstoremovehishat.Thereisnowaythewholefoxheadwouldfitintothesesquasheddrawings,butitlooksfunny,andthat’stheimportantthing.©DisneyLadyandtheTramp1955JOECLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.7,Sc.68Tony,theproprietoroftheItalianrestaurant,argueswithJoe,hischef,whoquestionshisboss’announcementthatTrampjustordereddiner.“Tony,dogsdon’tatalk!”InthissceneTonyrespondsvigorously:“He’satalkingtome!”Energetichandgesturesemphasizehisattitude,andhisexpressionsarebroadandextreme.Thebodyisholdingrelativelystill,sothemotionofhandsandfacereadsclearly.Lounsberywasanexpert indrawinghandsandhadnoproblemsdepicting themfromanyangle,as isevidentinthesekeydrawings.Thereareonlytwomainposesinthisscene.DuringthefirstoneTony’shandsgestureawayfromhisbody.Thesecondposeshowshimpressinghishandsagainsthischestontheword“me.”Theanimationisenergetic,butcarefullycontrolled,soitdoesn’tcomeoffaslookingtoobusy.©DisneySleepingBeauty1959KINGHUBERTROUGHANIMATIONSeq.13,Sc.28“Neverunderestimatethevalueofpropsinanimation!”MiltKahloncesaid.JohnLounsberyknew this verywell, andwhenhe animated this scene, abottle came inhandytohelpKingHubertpunchalineofdialogue.Hubert andKingStefanargueover thepossibilityof their childrennot likingeachother,before they are supposed to get married. Hubert angrily approaches Stefan: “Why doesn’tyourdaughter likemyson?”Lounsberywantedtoemphasizetheword“son,”andtherearemanywayshecouldhavedonethis,likebanginghisfistonthetable.But,sinceearlieron,thetwo kingswere happily toasting and drinkingwine, it seems a good choice to use awinebottle.Lounsbery feels comfortable portraying strong, exaggerated emotions, and every one ofthesedrawingswasdonewitheaseandpleasure.©DisneyTheSwordintheStone1963MERLINCLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.2,Sc.309Merlin begins to educateWart about theworld as theyboth leavehis house in thewoods:“Everybodyhasproblems;theworldisfullofproblems.”Themagicianclosesthedoorbehindhim,beforerealizingthathislongbeardhasgotstuck.Inanefforttofreehimself,thebeardsnapsawayfromthedoorandendsupinatightlooparoundMerlin’sneck.Heuseshismagicwandtouncurlthebeard.Afterthreeeffortsitfinallycomesloose,butformsagiant,fluffedhairball.ThiscloseupsceneshowsMerlin’sattemptstostraightenouthisbeardtoitsnaturalshape.Heusesbotharmsrepeatedlytobringitbacktoitsoriginalappearance.This visual gag helps defineMerlin’s befuddled charm.He is far from being the perfect,dignifiedsorcerer.Itisinterestingtonotethatthebeardtakesonacompletelyabstractshapeafterbeingpulled.Thistransformationcomesunexpectedly,andgetsabiglaugh.©Disney©DisneyTheJungleBook1967BALOOANDKINGLOUIECLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.7,Sc.68Duringthesong“IWannaBeLikeYou”Baloo,disguisedasanape,andKingLouieendupsharingafewdancemoves.Asthingsescalate,Baloograbstheorangutanfromthebackandcatapults him forward. This is a short continuity scene, but Lounsbery’s animation showscarefulchoreographyanddrawingduringthiswildmoment.ThereversalofBaloo’sspine,whenheliftsandthrowsKingLouie,helpstogivethisactionthe correct physicality. The scene works without any cartoony distortions, Lounsberymaintainsproperanatomyfor the twocharacters throughout.Asimplebutspiritedpieceofanimation.©DisneyMarcDavisAfterfinishingworkonthefilmOneHundredandOneDalmatiansin1960MarcDaviswaslookingforwardtodevelopingtheEuropeantaleChanticleerasapossiblefollow-upanimatedfeature.Thestorycenteredonaco*ckyroosterwhobelievedthathehimselfwasresponsiblefor each sunrise because of his earlymorning crowing.Marc drew endless designs for thischaracter and the restof the cast.Therewere chickens,ducks, foxes, owls, andmanyotheranimaltypes.Healsostoryboardedseveralsequencesfortheproject.Whenthetimecametopresentthiswork-in-progresstoWaltDisneyandseveralbusinesspeople,Marcwasanxioustoshare what he had been working on. After the designs and story work were pitched, anawkward silence dominated the room. BeforeWalt couldmake a comment, one executivebawled:“Youcan’tgetapersonalityoutofachicken!”Thegrouplefttheofficewithoutanyfurtherdiscussion.Marcwascrushed.Hefeltletdownafterjusthavingpitchedsomeofthebestdrawingsheeverdidatthestudio.Ittunedoutthatwasthemomenthiscareerasananimatorwasover.Moving forwardMarc needed a different kind of artistic challenge, andwhenWaltDisneyofferedMarcatoppositioninhisImagineeringdepartment,Marcaccepted.Thisnewjobstillofferedthechallengetobringthings to life,butnot throughdrawingsonfilm. InsteadWaltneededMarctodevelopanddesignelectronicmechanismsthatwouldanimateroboticfiguressuchasMr.Lincoln,children fromaroundtheworld,andagreatnumberofpirates.Disneyanimationlostoneofitsall-timegreats,butDisneylandbenefitedgreatlyfromMarc’sartisticinfluenceonsomeofthemosticonicthemeparkrides.His25yearsasananimatorandstory-manprovidedtheperfectexperiencefortellingstorieswithinarealenvironmentinhabitedbyallsortsofAudio-Animatronicscharacters.Backin1935,youngMarcDaviswaslookingforajobasanewspapercartoonist,butthiswasthetimeoftheGreatDepressionandsteadyemploymentwashardtofind.OnedayhefoundoutthatWaltDisneywaslookingforartiststohelphimexpandtheartofanimation.Heapplied and was hired on the spot. His portfolio was full of thorough human and animalanatomicalstudies.They showed a standard and level of draftsmanship never before seen in an applicant’ssubmission. Marc had spent years drawing animals at the San Francisco Zoo, where heobserved their skeletal structure but also their individual ways of moving. With no prioranimationbackground,hereceivedtrainingtobecomeanassistantanimator.WhenthestudiobegananimationforSnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarfs,MarcwasaskedbysenioranimatorGrimNatwicktoassisthimonthecharacterofSnowWhiteherself.Natwick’sdrawingstylewaslooseandsketchy,butheknewthatafinedraftsmanlikeDaviswouldbeagreatassettohimformaintainingtherealisticlookoftheprincess.Marcatfirstwasalittlesurprisedtobeaskedtodrawthegirl;afterall,hehadbeenknownaroundthestudioforbeinganexpertindepicting animals. But the way he sketched the female form in life drawing classes wasequallyimpressive.Asamatteroffact,thisearlyassignmentwouldbethestartofhiscareerasananimatorofleadingladies,bothgoodandevil.Natwickwasgrateful forMarc’s fineworkon the title character, andheofferedhim thechancetoanimateacoupleofscenesduringthedancesequencewiththedwarfs.Marcknewthat drawing SnowWhite’s head looking good at any anglewould not be an easy task toaccomplish.Soheproducedasmallsculptureofherheadthatwouldhelphimdefinecorrectfacialperspectives.Lookingathisfirstanimation,itisastonishingtoseehowelegantlySnowWhitemovesasshedancesinthedwarfs’cottage.Themainmotionwasbasedonlive-actionreference, but the overlapping action of her hair and dress needed to be enhanced andbroadenedinordertolooknaturalinanimation.SnowWhitedancesinthedwarfs’cottage.©DisneyShecertainlywasn’taneasycharactertogetstartedonasananimatorandlearnthetricksof the trade, because everything about Snow White is subtle. Usually newcomers to theanimatedmediumreceiveassignmentswithbroadcharacterslikeGoofyorDonaldDuck,whor*quireamuchmoreextensiveuseofsquashandstretchintheanimation.Marcwouldn’tgetthechancetoworkon such typesuntilyears later.His last assistantworkwas for the1938shortfilmFerdinandtheBull,beforeWaltDisneyaskedMarctojointhestoryunitforBambi,a filmhewouldworkon for thenext sixyears.Everyoneat the studioknewaboutMarc’sexpertise in animal drawing, and since the film’s characters were to be drawn with morerealismthaneverbefore,onlytopdraftsmenwereassignedtothemovie.Atthebeginning,MarcneededtofigureoutanappropriatedesignstyleforBambi,Thumper,Flower,andtherestofthecast.Thesepersonalitiesweresupposedtoexpresshumanemotionswhileretainingtheirspecificanimalbehavior.Ifdrawntoorealistically,theywouldnotbemuchfuntoanimate.Ifdrawninaverycaricaturedway,theywouldnotmatchtheserioustoneofthestorymaterial.LuckilyevenasayoungartistMarchadgoodjudgmentandhisearlydrawingsshowjusttherightcombinationofrealanimalanatomyandanimatableforms.InordertogiveyoungBambichildlikeexpressions,Marcstudiedphotographsfromabookaboutjuvenilebehavior.TheresultsimpressedWaltDisneyandanimatorFrankThomas,wholaterstated:“WithoutallofMarc’sdesignresearch,wecouldn’thavemadethemovie.”FACINGPAGETheseheadstudiesshowthatBambiwasabletogothroughawiderangeofhumanemotions.©DisneyMarcspentfouryearsdevelopingstorysequencesthatwouldinspirebackgroundartistsandanimators to bring the world of Bambi to life. The extraordinary draftsmanship in thesesketches proved that there was great potential in translating Felix Salten’s book into ananimated feature film. The poses are solid, and their staging makes the characters relatestrongly.ThesesketchesshowDavis’extraordinarydraftsmanship.©DisneyTowardtheendofstorydevelopmentonBambi,WaltDisneytoldMarcthathewouldliketoseehisdrawingsonthescreen,butanimated.“SohesentmetoseeFrankThomasandMiltKahl.Waltaskedthemtomakeananimatoroutofme,”Marcrecountedlater.Ashorttrainingperiodfollowed,duringwhichMarcstudiedtheworkmethodsandphilosophiesofthesetwoestablished animators.Milt Kahl brought superior drawing and grand design to his scenes,while Frank Thomas always started out by analyzing the character’s emotions. EventuallyMarcwasassignedtothecharacterofFlower,akindandmelancholicskunk.Ade-scentedliveanimalwasbroughttothestudio,providingMarcwiththeopportunitytostudyhissubjectupclose.Beforeanimatinghisfirstscene,hecreatedmanyroughmodelstudiesofrealskunksinordertoachievetherealismneededforthefinalversion.Early studies show Marc’s attempts to capture the essence of a skunk. Black and white fur markings already createinterestingdesignpatterns.©DisneyFurther explorations lead to the final character design, but even at this stage it wasimportant to Marc to develop a full understanding of the inner structure of this cartoonanimal.Oncetheinnerworkingsoftheskunk’sbodyareexplored,theanimationwillappearbelievableandplausible.©DisneyMarc endedupdrawingmost of Flower’s scenes aswell as theones that involved a girlskunk.When these two characters meet, they are instantly twitterpated, and the situationturns into themost surrealandcartoonysequenceof thewhole film.Aftera fewflirtatiousgesturestheirmouths“accidentally”makecontact,resultinginasurprisekiss.Floweractuallyblushes,heturnsbrightpink,andhisbodytakesontheshapeofasquarebrick.Hethenfallsbackwardandbouncesonthegroundlikeastiffpieceofwood.Itisaveryunusualgagwithinthisrealisticfilm.AudienceswereusedtowatchingDonaldorGoofygoingthroughroutineslike this one, but to see Flower’s reaction of his first kiss being portrayed in such a broadmannermust have seemed somewhat unexpected. The reason the sceneworks and alwaysgetsabiglaughisbecauseMarchadpreviouslyestablishedFlowerasacompletelyconvincingcharacterinthewayhemovedandexpressedhimself.Hissoft-spokenvoicesuggestedslowandsubtlemovements.Buthere,bycontrast,hisfeelingsoffirstloveturnintoanover-the-topanimatedmoment.Throughit,theskunkbecomesevenmorelikeablebecauseheshowsthatevenheiscapableofanextremeemotionsuchasloveandpassion.Flower’sover-the-topreactiontohisfirstkisswasunusualintheotherwiserealisticfilm,butMarcDavismadeitwork.©DisneyIntenseemotionswereagaincalledforwhenMarcDavisbrieflyreturnedtostoryworkforthewartimepropagandadocumentaryVictoryThroughAirPower.ThefilmwasbasedonthebookbyMajorAlexanderdeSeversky.MarcdevelopedthefinalclimacticbattlebetweentheAmerican Eagle and the Japanese Octopus. This is a short sequence, but highly dramaticstagingandeditingcombinedwithastylizedcolorpalettecreateddramaticmoments.It is interestingtopointoutthatMarc’sstorysketchesmadeitvirtuallyunchangedtothescreen.All the power and drama evident in his drawings was captured by the sequence’s artdirectionandBillTytla’spowerfulanimation.ThesestorysketchesshowDavis’abilitytovisualizeafierceactionsequence.©DisneyBytheearly1940s,WaltDisneywasawareofMarc’smultipletalentsasananimator,story-man,anddesigner.ThefilmSongoftheSouthwas inearlydevelopment,andMarcwasthefirstanimatortobeassignedtotheproject.Hestartedoutbyexploringastylefortheanimalcharacters. Even in these initial sketches,Marc is already looking forways to enhance thepersonalities graphically. While these character types walk on two legs, they retain theirdistinctiveanimalattributes:thecunningfoxandtheslowbutstrongbear.ThepersonalitiesofBrerFoxandBrerBear(opposite)comeacrossevenintheseearlysketches.©DisneyInthisfilm,MarcanimatedtheintroductoryscenewithBrerRabbitwhenheistellingUncleRemusthathedecidedtorunawayfromhishomeintheBriarPatch.Intheprocessofnailinghis front door shut with a hammer, he hits one of his fingers. Things get worse when heangrilyhits thehammerwithone leg,whichcausesgreatpainand leadshimto takea fewjumps as he holds on to his foot. All the way through the scene he is carrying on aconversationwithUncleRemusaboutallthetroubleheisgettinginto.It’saterrificpieceofacting business and reveals Brer Rabbit as a somewhat nervous and energetic, yet likeablecharacter.RightfromthefirstsceneMarcletstheaudienceknowwhatkindofcharacterBrerRabbitis.©DisneyFACING PAGE Early color sketches already reveal Cinderella as a fun-loving person, who finds herself caught in a badpredicament.©DisneyAftercompletinganimationonseveralkeysceneswitheachof the threemaincharactersMarcwentontoworkonmovieslikeFunandFancyFreeandTheAdventuresofIchabodandMr.Toad,butnotinananimationsupervisoryrole.Itjustsohappenedthatbythetimehewasassigned to any of these films, the top spots had already been filled by other animators.Frustrating as this might have been, Marc still produced solid character animation for theBongosectionaswellastheMr.Toadsequence.WhenCinderellawentintoproduction,Marcdid again join the group of directing animators. He helped design the title character’sappearanceaswellassomeofheroutfits.Cinderella’scharmingbutmild-mannereddemeanorpresentedachallengeforMarcDavisand Eric Larson, who supervised her animation. A characterwho doesn’t show strongemotionsisverydifficulttobringtolife.Withoutanyeccentricitiestoplaywith,yourrangeasananimatorissomewhatlimited.Onlysubtleandrealisticmotioniscalledfor.AndyettherearemomentsinthefilmwhenCinderellaprojectsfeelingssuchasangerandevencynicism.When the stepmother is holding amusic lesson for her two rather untalented daughters,Cinderella iscleaningthefloordownstairswhilesinginghersong“SingSweetNightingale.”All of a sudden she realizes that Lucifer, the cat, has left dirty footprints all over the floor.Cinderellaangrilytossesthewashingclothandgoesaftertheevilcat,whensuddenlythereisa knock at the front door. She opens it and receives a letter from the palace. The micewitnessing the situation are as surprised as she is. Cinderella wonders about the letter’scontent,thenturnstothemiceandsays:“MaybeIshouldinterruptthe‘musiclesson?’”Herbrief,wide-eyed expression clearly communicateswhat she really thinks about the singingcoming fromupstairs. This scene alongwithmany otherswas acted out by actressHeleneStanley. Her filmed performances served as a basis for the animators’ work. Marc knewexactly how toworkwith such reference; he chose carefullywhich parts of the live-actionwereimportanttohisanimatedperformanceandwhichpartsprovedextraneous.Cinderellaandtheletterfromthepalace.©DisneyMarcalsoanimated the iconicmomentwhenCinderella’s raggedoutfit—with thehelpoftheFairyGodmother—istransformedintoabeautifulgown.ItiscommonknowledgethatthisscenebecameafavoriteofWaltDisney.Marcstatedlaterrathermodestly:“It’snotbecauseofmyanimation.ThisscenerepresentsWalt’sphilosophythatgoodthingscanhappen,thatyourdreamscancometrue.”Itisinterestingtoseethatthefinalclean-updrawingsweremaderightoverMarc’sroughanimationdrawings.Thisprocesssavedtime,butwasonlypossiblewhenevertheanimatordrewthecharactercompletelyonmodel.©DisneyThe animation of Cinderella required top-notch draftsmanship, andWalt knew that theheroineforhisnextfeatureAliceinWonderlandalsoneededtobeassignedtoanimatorswhowerecompetentinanimatingafemalelead.ItisobviouswhyMarcendedupintheunitthatwas responsible for bringing Alice to life. He did not necessary welcome the assignment,becauseheknewthatthefilm’sentertainmentwouldcomefromallofitseccentriccharacters,suchas theMadHatteror theQueenofHearts.Whilepersonalities likeCinderellaorAlicedon’tmakeaudienceslaughoutloud,theyareessentialtothestoryandmustbehandledinabelievableway—theyneedtocomeacrossasreal.WhenwatchingAliceinWonderland, theaudience takeson the roleofAlice,whor*actsconstantly to thenonsensical charactersandsituationsshefindsherselfin.Marc animated her in theMadTea Party sequence as she tries to solve silly riddles andplaysalongduringamanicunbirthdayparty.Basedon live-actionreferenceMarcproducedthemostappealinganddelicatedrawingsofAlice.Eachofhisroughanimationdrawingsissocarefullyexecutedthat theyholdupas individual illustrations.Theyarea joyto lookat formorethanatwenty-fourthofasecond.Marc’sroughdrawingsaredelicateandappealing.©DisneyTheanimatorexploresthedimensionalformsofAlice’sfaceindetail.©DisneyMarc’snext assignmentwouldbe a female character again, but this timeher personalitywascapableofawiderrangeofemotions.TinkerBell fromthefilmPeterPandidnot talk,whichpresentedaninterestingchallengetotheanimator.Herwholebodylanguageneededtocommunicate her inner feelings,whichweremostly driven byher jealousy towardWendy.And even though Tinker Bell at one point putsWendy’s life in danger, Marc manages topresentherasanutterlylikablecharacter.WeseeherfirstintheDarlingchildren’sbedroomas she landsonamirror to inspecther reflection.Hermoodchanges fromdelight to shockwhen Tink notices the size of her hips. This reaction makes her instantly relatable andsympathetic.Designedwithultimateappealandfeminineelegance,TinkerBelladmireshermirrorimage.©DisneyMarc’sanimationsketcheswereturnedintoclean-updrawingsbyClairWeeks.©DisneyWhen Peter Pan’s first attempts to teach the children how to fly fail, Tinker Bell isdelighted.Wendy,John,andMichaelfallfromtheroom’sceilingandcrashontoabed.Tinkobservesthesituationsittingonanalphabetcube.Shelaughsmischievously,whichcausesthecubetoturnover,resultinginherowncrash—alessonaboutthefactthattakingpleasureinthemisfortunes of otherswill oftenhave consequences!Clean-up artistClairWeeks turnedMarc’sanimationsketchesforthissceneintodelicateclean-updrawingswhilemaintainingaveryhighlevelofdraftsmanship.OneofMarc’s“doodle”sheetsshowshisresearchforTinkerBell’sfacialfeaturesandhairmovement.Byplacinghermouthlowandpracticallyeliminatingthejaw,sheappearsmorepixie-likeandlessrealistic.©DisneyWhileTinkerBellwasdesignedas a three-dimensional figure, alongwith the rest of thecastofPeterPan,graphicchangeswerestartingtosurfaceatTheWaltDisneyStudioduringthe1950s.Marc Davis was one of a few artists who influenced this development, while otheranimatorsinitiallyresentedthemoderntwo-dimensionalapproachtodrawing.PabloPicassohadbecometheworld’smostcelebratedartist,andMarc—togetherwithMiltKahlandWardKimball—welcomedachangeincharacterstylinginfluencedbymodernart.In1953,KimballdirectedtheshortfilmToot,Whistle,PlunkandBoom,whichturnedouttobeacleverhistorylessonaboutmusicalinstruments.Itscharacterdesignsresembleflatpapercut-outs,imageryfoundinmid-centurycubistart.MarcDaviswasoneofthekeyanimatorswhoworkedontheshort, and he welcomed the challenge of animating within this new graphic, sophisticatedstyle.Thecharactersofcoursestillneededtoactandentertain,butthewaytheyweredrawnindicated that a new era had begun at Walt’s studio. For this groundbreaking film, Marcfocusedondevelopingtheoutgoingpersonalityofthenarrator,ProfessorOwl.Strongcurvedandstraightlinesdefinetheappearanceofthefilm’scharacters.©DisneyThischangeinapproachtodrawingcontinuedonandwasfurtherdevelopedforDisney’selaborate feature Sleeping Beauty. Marc skipped the production of Lady and the Tramp,allowinghimtodesign,animate,andestablishSleepingBeauty’stwomaincharacters,Auroraand Maleficent. During a lecture Marc explained: “We did a lot more design with thecharactersthanwehadeverdonebeforeorwouldeverdoagain.SleepingBeautywasmoredesignedintwo-dimensionalshapesthananyothercharacterwe’vedone.”Thisinitialdesignrepresentsayoung,princess,whodoeslook16yearsold.©DisneyInthefinalversion,Aurora’sagecouldbe25.Itisunclearwhythisagingprocesstookplace,perhapsajuvenile-lookinggirldidn’tfitthefilm’ssophisticatedstory.©DisneyInthiselegantkeydrawing,Auroradanceswithaprincemadeupofvariousanimals,includinganowlandasquirrel.Whatabeautifulcomposition,evenforabackview!©DisneyBecauseofthedegreeofrealisminthecharacter’sdesign,actressHeleneStanleywasagaincalled upon to act outmost scenes forMarcDavis as reference for his animation.He laterexplainedtostudentsabouthisuseofliveaction.Marccomparedthisfootagetoafirstroughpassofascene:“Youdon’tstartfromscratchwithablankpieceofpaper,youalreadyhavesomethingtolookat.”Theideaistotakewhatanactorhasdoneandtranslateitintographic,movingstatements.Simplytracingthephotostatswouldresultin“floaty”animationwithoutenoughcontrastinthetiming.Whilesomepartsofasceneneedtobespedup,othersmighthave to be slowed down in order to feel right for graphicmotion. Then there are specialdesignpatternsinAurora’shairandthefabricofherskirt.Thesethingsneedtobeinventedandcontrolledbytheanimator.Whentheoverallliveactingisnotsatisfactory,thescenehasto be reimagined by way of conventional animation. It’s fair to say that using live-actionreferencesuccessfullyisnotaseasyasitmightseem.MarcanimatedAurora’smostimportantactingscenes, includingherencounterwith thesympathetic forestanimals,whodesperatelywantthegirltofindherprince.Thefilm’svillainessofferedevengreaterandmoredramaticdesignpossibilities.Maleficentneeded to look visually stunning as well as intimidating. Her personality and voice weredominant and authoritative, and Marc new how to match those qualities with pencil andpaper.AnearlyversionofMaleficent’sdesign.©DisneyIntheend,addedhornsgaveherappearanceadevilishquality,andsleevesshapedlikeflameswereusedtogreatdramaticeffect.©DisneyMarc tookgreatpleasure indrawing this theatrical-lookingcharacter,butbringingher tolife throughanimationwasadifferentmatter.Ashestated,Maleficent formostof the timestood around giving speeches. She never came in physical contact with any of the othercharacters.Thispresentedlimitationsinwhatyoucandowithher.Subduedactingandslowcarefullyconceivedmovementshelpedtomakeherbelievabletoanaudience.Theravenaddedanicevisual touch,andhealsogaveMaleficent theopportunity for someactingbusiness.Shecouldstrokehisfeathersorputhimonhershoulder.Theravenwasalsoimportant as a story device when he is being sent away to look far and wide for thewhereaboutsoftheprincess.Acoupleofdynamic,roughsketchesdemonstratethewayMarclaysoutkeymomentsofascene,beforeanimatingit.©DisneyAfter spending close to five years working on Sleeping Beauty, where each drawingreachedalevelofperfectionneverattemptedbefore,Marcreceivedwhatwouldbecometheultimate assignment of his animation career. Cruella De Vil in One Hundred and OneDalmatiansencompassesallthequalitieswehavecometoloveinaDisneyvillain.Herover-the-topdesignisagraphicmasterpiece,herambitionsaretrulyevil,andherbombasticscreenpresence makes her a favorite among animation fans. Unlike Maleficent, Cruella is veryphysical inheractions.She slapsherhenchmen JasperandHorace, she threatensAnitaandRogerbygettingupclosetothem,andshedriveshercarintoasnowdriftwhilepursuingthedogs.Herdrawing is fullof contrast: a tall skinnybodywithextremely thinarmsand legs,coveredbyanenormousfurcoat.Withthatkindofdramaticportrayal,itisnosurprisethatshestealseveryscenesheisin.What is surprising is the fact that Marc Davis animated every single scene with thischaracter.YetCruellaisnotasimpledesigntodraw.Therearemultiplesectionsofherfurcoat,andjustherhandbagaloneisverydetailed.Marcanimatedheroftenonones,whichrequires24drawings per second (animation on twos uses only 12). All this meant extra work, moreworkinghours,andendlessdedication.CruellawentthroughmanydesignexplorationsbeforeMarcfoundhisvillainess.Allsortsofhairstyles,furcoatdesigns,anddifferentfacialfeatureswereconsideredatonetimeoranother.ActressMaryWickes was filmed as she acted outmany of Cruella’s scenes, butMarc’sanimationgoessomuchfurtherthanWickes’performances.Heexaggeratedeachgesturetomaximize her flamboyancy. The fur coat’s motion re-enforces Cruella’s broad action, as itswingsbackandforthbeforecomingtoastop.Inordertomakethecoatfeelheavy,itneededtobetimedcarefully.Anythingheavytakeslongertochangedirectionthansomethinglight,likeathinskirt.For most scenes, Marc did every other drawing, with one even in-between left for theassistant to do.Most other animatorswould often call for two or three in-betweens to bedone.FACINGPAGEEarlyideasforCruellaDeVil’sdesign.©DisneyButMarc’sphilosophywasthatthemoredrawingshedidforagivenscene,themorehecontrolled the action. CruellaDeVil became one of themost entertaining screen creationsever.As an audiencewe can’t take our eyes off her because everything she does is shocking,surprising,orhilarious. Ifananimatorever left themediumonahighnote it isMarcDaviswithhisunforgettablecreationofCruellaDeVil.Wecan’thelpbutwonderwhatartisticinfluenceMarcmighthavehadonfuturefilmslikeTheJungleBookorRobinHood,butwewillneverknow.WaltDisneyneededhiminotherareasofhisorganization.Marc’suniquebodyofanimatedworksetsuchahighstandardthatstudying it can be somewhat intimidating. His characters are masterfully drawn and theyshowahugerangeintheirperformances.MarcwasabletocapturetheinnocenceofFlower,theskunk,aswellasdramatic,theatricalqualitiesforcharacterslikeMaleficentandCruella.But hewould notwant hiswork to intimidate; instead hewouldwant it to inspire futuregenerationsofanimators.CruellaDeVilisoneofthemostentertainingscreencreationsever.©DisneyBambi1942FLOWERANDTHUMPERCLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.10.1,Sc.41When adult Bambi, Flower, and Thumper run into friend Owl, they are being warned ofbecoming“twitterpated”:“…yourunsmackintoaprettyface.Woo-woo!”InthissceneMarcanimatedFlowerbeingspooked,ashejumpsintothearmsofThumper,lookingforprotection.Thumperisnotpleasedandpushestheskunkoff.This isacartoonymoment,but theanimationcomesoffasverybelievable,becausebothcharacters move with weight. As soon as Flower makes contact with Thumper, bothcharactersswingtooneside,beforetheysettlebackintoapose.Theaudiencewillbelieveinimpossiblesituationsaslongastheanimationshowsrealweight.©DisneyCinderella1950CINDERELLACLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.3,Sc.10TheFairyGodmothertellsCinderella:“Youcan’tgototheballlookinglikethat.”Hermelancholicreactionissubtleandunderplayed:“Theball?ButI’mnot…”Marcknewthatsimplicityisbestwhenshowingacharacterfeelingdejected.Cinderellalowersherheadassheglancesathertorndress.Herhandsholditupslightlyasasortofrealitycheck.Theballisoutofreachnow.WhenarealisticcharacterlikeCinderellamovesinsuchanunderstatedway,thequalityofthe drawing becomes paramount. In particular, her face needs to be drawnwith perfectionfrom any angle. Cinderella’s expression is a mixture of resignation, but also dignity. Theaudiencefeelsacertainpathosandclearlyrootsforthegirl.©DisneySleepingBeauty1959AURORAROUGHANIMATIONSeq.12,Sc.17“Everythingissowonderful,justwait’tilyoumeethim!”Auroratellsthethreegoodfairiesthat she is in love, and what better way to express her emotions than twirling around indance-likefashion?Marcmadeuseoftwoelementsthathelptheanimationappeargracefuland fluid. Aurora’s long, curly hair is beautifully designed as it flares out duringthe turnaround.Thesamecanbesaidforthemanylinesdefiningfoldsonherskirt.Itisinterestingtonote that as the character directs her attention from screen left to right, her upper body isleadingthemotion.Thelowerbodymovesslightlyintheoppositedirectionforbalance.Evenduringheractingscenes,Marcalwaysmaintainedanelementofeleganceandfluency.©Disney©DisneySeepingBeauty1959MALEFICENTROUGHANIMATIONSeq.18,Sc.67Maleficentleavesthedungeon,inwhichPrincePhillipisbeingheldcaptive.Shelocksthedoorwithakeyandputs it intoherpocket.“Forthefirsttimein16yearsIshallsleepwell,”shetells her raven. This is a sequence of stunning drawings reminiscent of elegant fashionillustrations.ThemainmotionhereisthekeytravelingfromthedoorlockintoMaleficent’spocket.Theaudiencefollowsthismoveveryclearlysinceheroverallactionisveryslightandgradual.Inscenes like thisone, itmusthavebeenachallenge tokeep theraven firmlyplacedonMaleficent’sshoulder,sinceheroversizedcollarcouldgetintheway.But,Marcalwaysmanagestostagetheravenconvincinglywiththecollareitherinfrontorbehindhim.©Disney©DisneyOneHundredandOneDalmatians1961CRUELLADEVILTOUCH-UPANIMATIONSeq.16,Sc.182Cruellagetshercomeuppanceinherfinalsceneofthefilm.IntryingtopushoverthetruckinwhichtheDalmatiansarehiding,hercarcollideswithJasperandHorace’svehicle.Allthreeend up down an embankment among car wreckage. “You idiots! You…you fools! Oh, youimbeciles…ah,ha,ha…”Jasperresponds:“Aw,shutup!”MarcwasabletoturnCruella’sdesperatefinaleintoahighlyentertainingscene.He drew her looking exasperated and disheveled. Yet ultimately there is somethinghilariousaboutthewayhertornfurcoatbarelyhangsontoherbody.Everyfrustratedmoveshemakesisbeingenhancedbythefollow-throughactionofherlowercoat.ThescenemighthavebeenMarc’sfinalpieceofanimation,anditisamasterpiece.Drawingandmotionlookgrotesqueandbizarre,butappealingatthesametime.©Disney©DisneyGLOSSARYAnimator: An artist who brings characters to life (in regards to this book, the artist’stechniqueistheuseofpencilandpaper).Background:Apaintingthatservesasthebackdropandstagefortheanimatedcharacter.Cartoony:Thetermfordescribingananimationstylethatisbroadandexaggerated.Cel:Atransparentsheetofcelluloidonwhichananimationdrawingisinkedandpainted.Clean-up: The process of refining the lines of rough animationby redrawing a scene in adetailedfineline.Effects animation: The art of moving special illusions like clouds, water, or shadows insupportofthecharacter’sactions.Exposure sheet: A form that details the action, dialogue, and music for a scene. Eachhorizontallinerepresentsoneframeoffilm.Extremedrawing:Thefarthestpointofanactionorexpression.Flipping:Toholdagroupofdrawingssothattheywillfallinanevenpatternandgivetheviewertheillusionofmovement.Frame:Theindividualpictureonthefilm.Thereare16framestoeachfootoffilm,24framestoeachsecondofrunningtimeonthescreen.Full animation: The process of creating fluidmovement by showing between 12 and 24drawingsforeachsecondoffilm.Hold:Tokeepadrawingstationaryforanumberofframes.In-betweener: The artist who finishes the needed number of drawings in between thosecreatedbytheanimator.Thisprocessisrequiredforroughaswellasclean-upanimation.Inker:Theartistwhotracesdrawingsontocellswithink.Layout: The black-and-white rendering done by a layout artist that determines the basiccompositionofascene.Limitedanimation:Theprocessofusinganimationdrawingseconomicallybyoftenholdingthecharacter’sposestillandonlyshowmouthmovement.Painter:Theartistwhopaintscolorsoncells.Rotoscope: The use of live-action film reference to aid the animator with realisticmovements.Rough:Theanimator’ssketchydrawings.Squashandstretch:Ananimationprinciplethatdepictsthecharacterinacompressedandelongatedposition,addingfluidityandcomedytothemotion.Staging:Thebasicvisualpresentationofascene.Storyboard:Alargeboardonwhichpinnedsketchestellastoryincomic-stripfashion.Storyreel:Afilmedsequenceasaworkinprogress.Storysketch:Asimple,storytellingdrawingdonebyastoryartist.Sweatbox:Asmallprojectionroominwhichfilmsarerunforcriticism.Touch-up: Theprocess of tyingdown the animator’s roughdrawingon the same sheet ofpaperbyerasingextraneouspencillines.INDEX{Pagenumbersinitalicsrefertoillustrations}ATheAdventuresofIchabodandMr.Toad64–7,126,211–12,232–5,260,261,306,351AliceinWonderland12,84–5,263,278–81,353;Caterpillar308;CheshireCat131;Doorknob216;KingofHearts264;MadTeaParty130,309,353;QueenofHearts215,236–7;RedRose309;trial162,163;TweedledumandTweedledee129,146–9;WhiteRabbit45–6Anderson,Ken170,175TheAristocats34,228,272;Edgarthebutler172,173,272,320;GeorgesHautecourt172,192–5,320;MadameBonfamille172,173;Roquefort(mouse)88,89Aurora(SleepingBeauty)358–9,372–5BBabbitt,Art4–5BabesinToyland134Bacchus138–41BalooseeTheJungleBookBambi155,209,254,255,338–43;facialexpressions339;Feline156;FriendOwl78–80;skunk(Flower)341–3,368–9;Thumper210,256,368–9TheBandConcert4,34BedknobsandBroomsticks134,174BlueFairy(Pinoccio)252,276–7TheBraveLittleTailor205,206,249BrerBear81,304,347BrerFox259,346BrerRabbit81,348,349Bull(bulldog)(LadyandtheTramp)312BumbleBoogie10CCaptainHookseePeterPanCaterpillar308Chanticleer336CheshireCat131Cinderella11,84,307,350,351–2,370–1;Duke161,184–7,261;FairyGodmother162;GusandJaq(mice)45,129,306;Lucifer(cat)126–9,144–5;stepdaughters261;stepmother(LadyTremaine)213–14,261ClaraCluck3Clark,Les1–31Cleworth,Eric50Colonel(dog)(OneHundredandOneDalmations)316ColonelHathi(elephant)(JungleBook)318–19TheCountryCousin4–5,18–19CruellaDeVil364–6,367,380–3DdanceseeFantasia;music/danceDanceoftheHours119,299–301Davis,Marc335–83;andClark11,13;andKahl162;andKimball132,134;andLarson71,84,87,89,351Disney,Walt34,269;andClark2;andDavis336,338,341,346,352,367;andJohnston250;andKahl152,166;andKimball112,113,125,132;andLarson70,71,76;andReitherman51;andThomas204,207,213DonaldDuck9,124,157,202Donald’sCousinGus38,52–5Doorknob(AliceinWonderland)216Duke(Cinderella)161,184–7,261Dumbo43,121,122,302–3EEdgarthebutler(Aristocats)172,173,272,320eyes4–5Ffairies:BlueFairy(Pinoccio)252,276–7;FairyGodmother(Cinderella)162;NutcrackerSuite7;SleepingBeauty222,240–1,266Fantasia:Bacchus138–41;DanceoftheHours119,299–301;NutcrackerSuitefairies7;Pastoralsequence77–8,119,253;“RiteofSpring”(TyrannosaurusRexandStegosaur)40,41,58–9;TheSorcerer’sApprentice8,20–3FarmyardSymphony73Feline,Bambiand156FerdinandtheBull136–7,153,338Ferguson,Norm(“Fergy”)296–7,298,299Figaro(kitten)(Pinocchio)74,75,77Flower(skunk)(Bambi)341–3,368–9FlowersandTrees16–17TheFlyingGauchito80,90–3,210forestanimals(SnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarfs)71–2,154TheFoxandtheHound231,275FrankandOllie202FriendOwl(Bambi)78–80GGeorgeDarling(PeterPan)296,310GeorgesHautecourt(Aristocats)172,192–5,320Goofy35,42,47,80;SaludosAmigos60–3GoofyandWilbur37GusGoose38,52–5GusandJaq(mice)(Cinderella)45,129,306HHawaiianHoliday35HeadlessHorseman(LegendofSleepyHollow)44HonestJohnandGideon(Pinocchio)298–9,322–3HookseePeterPanHowtoRideaHorse42IIndianChief(PeterPan)132It’sToughtoBeaBird134Iwerks,Ub2,4,9JJasperandHorace(OneHundredandOneDalmations)315JiminyCricket(Pinocchio)112,113,115–19JohnnyAppleseed260Johnston,Ollie247–93;andClark6;andKahl152,153,155,160,162;andReitherman40,43;andThomas202,222,226,231TheJungleBook34,51,170,318;Baloo270,271,290–3;BalooandKingLouie332–3;BalooandMowgli226–7;ColonelHathi318–19;Kaa228;ShereKhan170,171,228KKaa(python)(JungleBook)228Kahl,Milt151–99;andClark6;andDavis341;andJohnston250,253;andKimball126,129,132;andLarson71,86–7;andLoundsbery296,314,320,321;andThomas217,220Kimball,Ward111–49;andKahl164;andLoundsbery309;andReitherman42KingofHearts(AliceinWonderland)264KingHubertandKingStephanseeSleepingBeautyKingLouieandBaloo(JungleBook)332–3LLadyandtheTramp13,14–15,133,220–1,311–13;Bull(bulldog)312;Peg86–7,98–101;TonyandJoe311,324–5;Tramp48–9,164,165;Trusty220,265,286–9LadyTremaine(Cinderella)213–14,261Larson,Eric69–109;andClark11,15;andDavis71,84,87,89,351;andKahl154,155TheLegendofSleepyHollow44LittleHiawatha204LittleToot83live-action:films134,170;footage(MaryPoppins)170,225;reference11,12,28,84–5,162,168,213,217,222,263,337,351Loundsbery,John295–333Lucifer(Cinderella)126–9,144–5Luske,Ham71,112MMadTeaPartycharacters130,309,353MadameBonfamille(Aristocats)172,173MadameMedusa(Rescuers)178,179,196–9MadameMim(SwordintheStone)169,224,242–5,317MagicMirror(SnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarfs)35–6MakeMineMusicseePeterandtheWolfMaleficent(SleepingBeauty)360–3,376–9marionettes(Pinocchio)76–7MarsandBeyond(TVseries)134MaryPoppins170,225,270MelodyTime306;BumbleBoogie10;JohnnyAppleseed260;LittleToot83;OnceUponaWintertime82–3;PecosBill126,127,160Merlin(SwordintheStone)328–31MickeyandtheBeanstalk10,305MickeyMouse2,3,4,202;TheBraveLittleTailor205,206,249;andMinnieMouse251;TheNiftyNineties123;ThePointer207,250;TheSorcerer’sApprentice8,20–1;TheSymphonyHour8,24–7Mickey’sCircus202Mickey’sElephant203MinnieMouse16,123,251Monstro(whale)(Pinocchio)39,56–7Moore,Fred:andClark4–5;andJohnston249,250,252,253,275;andKimball123;andLarson77;andReitherman43;andThomas202,205music/dance:TheAdventuresofIchabodandMr.Toad232–5;AliceinWonderland309;TheBandConcert4,34;Dumbo121,122;JungleBook228,270,271,290–3,332–3;MakeMineMusic(PeterandtheWolf)142–3,258,303;MaryPoppins170,225,270;MickeyandtheBeanstalk10;Orphan’sBenefit3;Pinocchio76–7,118,207;TheSkeletonDance2;SnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarfs5–6,337;TheSymphonyHour8,24–7;TheThreeCaballeros9,124;Toot,Whistle,PlunkandBoom133,356–7;WoodlandCafé112–13,seealsoFantasia;MelodyTimeNNatwick,Grim337TheNiftyNineties123NutcrackerSuitefairies7OOnceUponaWintertime82–3OneHundredandOneDalmations50–1,87–9,102–5,168,223–4,267–8;Colonel316;CruellaDeVil364–6,367,380–3;JasperandHorace315Orphan’sBenefit3PPastoralsequence(Fantasia)77–8,119,253PecosBill126,127,160Peet,Bill158,170,262Peg(LadyandtheTramp)86–7,98–101penguins(MaryPoppins)225,270PeterPan85–6,94–7,132,164,310–11;CaptainHook217–18,219,238–9,264;CaptainHookandtheCrocodile46–7;GeorgeDarling296,310;IndianChief132;Smee264,282–5;TinkerBell13,238,354–6;Wendy28–31,94–7PeterandtheWolf142–3,258,303;Sasha(bird)81,125Pinocchio6,44,112,113,152–3,207–8,250,252;BlueFairy252,276–7;Figaro(kitten)74,75,77;HonestJohnandGideon298–9,322–3;JiminyCricket112,113,115–19;marionettes76–7;Monstro(whale)39,56–7;transformationintodonkey180–3PlayfulPluto296–7Pluto203,296–7,298ThePointer207,250,298PrinceJohnandSirHiss(RobinHood)272–3PrincePhillipseeSleepingBeautypropagandafilms158,211,257,303,344–5QQueenofHearts(AliceinWonderland)215,236–7RReasonandEmotion158,257RedRose(AliceinWonderland)309Reitherman,Wolfgang(Woolie)33–67;andClark15TheReluctantDragon42,120,121TheRescuers230,274,321;MadameMedusa178,179,196–9“RiteofSpring”(Fantasia)40,41,58–9RobinHood175,176,229;PrinceJohnandSirHiss272–3;SheriffofNottinghamandOtto321Roquefort(mouse)(Aristocats)88,89SSaludosAmigos60–3,157Sasha(bird)(PeterandtheWolf)81,125SecondWorldWar10,44,157;propagandafilms158,211,257,303,344–5ShereKhan(JungleBook)170,171,228SheriffofNottinghamandOtto(RobinHood)321SillySymphonies2TheSkeletonDance2skunk(Flower)(Bambi)341–3,368–9SleepingBeauty15,34,87,134,314;Aurora358–9,372–5;KingHubert167,188–91,314,326–7;KingStefan167,314,326;Maleficent360–3,376–9;Merryweather240–1;PrincePhillip166;PrincePhillipandtheDragon50;PrincePhillipandKingHubert188–91;threegoodfairies222,240–1,266Smee(PeterPan)264,282–5SnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarfs112,249,296,337–8;dwarfs5–6,114–15,205;forestanimals71–2,154;MagicMirror35–6;Witch297SongoftheSouth81–2,158,159,259,304,346–8TheSorcerer’sApprentice8,20–3squashandstretch3,36,157,202,208,240,298,338SteamboatWillie2Susie,theLittleBlueCoupe262TheSwordintheStone51,106–9,169,224–5,242–5,269,317;Merlin328–31TheSymphonyHour8,24–7TThomas,Frank201–45;andClark6;andDavis338,341;andJohnston250,253,266,275;andKahl152,155,164,169;andReitherman43TheThreeCaballeros9,124;TheFlyingGauchito80,90–3,210Thumper(Bambi)210,256,368–9TimothyMouse43TinkerBell13,238,354–6TonyandJoe(LadyandtheTramp)311,324–5Toot,Whistle,PlunkandBoom133,356–7TheTortoiseandtheHare71Tramp(LadyandtheTramp)48–9,164,165Trusty(LadyandtheTramp)220,265,286–9TweedledumandTweedledee129,146–9TyrannosaurusRexandStegosaur(Fantasia)40,41,58–9UTheUglyDuckling73,153VVictoryThroughAirPower344–5WWendy28–31,94–7WhiteRabbit45–6Witch(SnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarfs)297WoodlandCafé112–13TheEndCoverHalf TitleTitle PageCopyright PageDedicationTable of ContentsAcknowledgmentsThe AuthorPrefaceLes ClarkWolfgang ReithermanEric LarsonWard KimballMilt KahlFrank ThomasOllie FohnstonJohn LounsberyMarc DavisGlossaryIndex
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Perguntas dessa disciplina

Grátis

The ordinal form for the number ninety, underlined in the text, is A Ninth.B Nineth.C Ninetieth.D Ninetieth.

Grátis

According to the information presented in the second paragraph, one can say that(A) most people, no matter their age, sleep from seven to nine hou...
The right comprehension of the text above requires an intertextual knowledge that addresses to what book? Escolha uma opção: a. A nineteenth Cen...

UNINTA

QUESTÃO 7 a.( ) “An old man turned ninety-eight”, o article (artigo) pode ser trocado por “a” sem que ocorra erro gramatical na frase.b.( )...
Leia o excerto a seguir. “There are nine languages in Eritrea. Tigrinya (50%) and Arabic are the working languages. The other languages are Tigre (...

FMU

The Nine Old Men - Vestibular (2024)
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